A Skeptical Review Of CBS' Super Bowl Online Streaming Success

The Denver Broncos' Super Bowl victory against the Carolina Panthers was the third most-watched broadcast in U.S. television history. CBS also streamed the game online.

The Denver Broncos’ Super Bowl victory against the Carolina Panthers was the third most-watched broadcast in U.S. television history. CBS also streamed the game online. Julie Jacobson/AP hide caption

toggle caption Julie Jacobson/AP

If you watched Sunday’s Super Bowl, how did you get it? Over cable? Rabbit ears? (Yes, those still work.) Or did you stream it online?

CBS put the big game on the Internet and for the first time, streamed the commercials online as well. According to Nielsen’s national ratings, with 111.9 million viewers, the game was the third most-watched broadcast in American TV history (behind two other recent Super Bowls).

And despite reported troubles streaming the game on Apple TV and Google’s Chromecast, CBS also says the online stream had a record audience of almost 4 million unique viewers or an average of 1.4 million viewers per minute.

But Dan Rayburn was unimpressed. With the complicated nature of estimating the size and impact of online streaming, Rayburn, executive vice president at StreamingMedia.com and principal analyst at Frost & Sullivan, tells NPR’s Kelly McEvers it may not be the future of live sports.


Interview Highlights

On what CBS garnering a “record audience” for the online stream really means

Doesn’t mean much, to be honest with you. There’s way too much hype over something like putting a live sporting event online, because we’ve been doing this for 20 years. And yes, the traffic we get to events like this [is] larger but it’s typical of an event after this, like we saw with CBS, they come out and pat themselves on the back and say it’s a record and then they give us no data or numbers as to what that actually means.

If we compare it to last year, last year they had a little over 1 million simultaneous streams at the same time, watching the Super Bowl online. But keep in mind that’s not a million simultaneous people, because someone like me is watching six or seven streams at a time. … A million is not a big deal when you’re talking about there’s roughly 100 million pay TV subscribers just in the U.S. alone. You’re talking about 1 percent of the whole market.

On the significance of the popular commercials being streamed as well

The significance there is just in terms of some of the back-end technology. It’s actually easier for them to put the ads online than to take them out. There’s something in the industry that’s called stream stitching, which is how you stitch live ads into a stream … . But since we get no metrics or demographics afterwards of who watched what for how long or how much money they made from the ads. We don’t even know if this was a money-making thing for them online. Which it probably was not. They probably lost money.

On whether streaming is the future

The problem you have is the fragmentation in the market. So for instance, if you wanted to watch it on mobile yesterday, you could only do so if you were a Verizon customer. So this is not the future for large-scale live events. The problem we have in the industry is many people think that one technology replaces another, when typically it’s a complement to it. So the Internet broadcast that we see, whether it’s live or on-demand, that can’t replace TV distribution at the same quality, the same scale and the same reliability. The technology just doesn’t support it.

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Gulf Of Mexico Open For Fish-Farming Business

Divers around the open-ocean aquaculture cage at the Cape Eleuthera Institiute in The Bahamas. These cages are not currently used in the Gulf of Mexico, but represent one type of farming technology that could work in in the region.

Divers around the open-ocean aquaculture cage at the Cape Eleuthera Institiute in The Bahamas. These cages are not currently used in the Gulf of Mexico, but represent one type of farming technology that could work in in the region. NOAA/with permission from Kelly Martin hide caption

toggle caption NOAA/with permission from Kelly Martin

The Gulf of Mexico is now open for commercial fish farming.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced last month that, for the first time in the U.S., companies can apply to set up fish farms in federal waters.

The idea is to compete with hard-to-regulate foreign imports. But opening the Gulf to aquaculture won’t be cheap, and it could pose environmental problems.

Harlon Pearce, the owner of Harlon’s Louisiana Fish, which supplies restaurants and groceries across the South, says he welcomes the change. Around this time of year, his refrigerated warehouse outside of New Orleans is stocked with catch.

“You’ve got 30,000 pounds of fish right here, or more,” he says.

He’s freezing a lot of it to keep up with year-round demand. He says he’d like to sell nationwide, to big chains like Red Lobster, but “we never have enough fish to supply the markets. Never,” he says.

That’s true for a couple of reasons. For one thing, the seafood industry in the Gulf still hasn’t bounced back from the 2010 BP oil spill. But, also, the industry has always fluctuated, due to hurricanes and pollution.

Pearce, who is on the board of the Gulf Seafood Institute, says that aquaculture could solve that.

The rest of the world is already heavily invested in farming fish. According to NOAA, 90 percent of fish in the U.S. comes from abroad and half of this is farmed. While fish farms exist in the U.S., the industry has yet to really take off. And, until now, federal waters had been off limits. The U.S. government says that opening up the Gulf to fish farms would reduce American dependence on foreign food and improve security.

“We see it as another important step in building the resiliency of our oceans and fishing communities,” says NOAA Administrator Kathryn Sullivan. “This starts with the Gulf but actually opens the door for other regions to follow suit.”

In the coming years, NOAA will issue 10-year permits to companies that want to set up shop in federal waters, generally three miles offshore. The farms, which look like giant floating pens, are only allowed to raise fish native to the area. In the Gulf, that means species like red drum and cobia — not salmon or tilapia.

Some say the farms will hurt struggling fishermen.

“These systems will take up real space in the ocean and displace fishermen. In fact, there are going to be buffer zones around these facilities where fishermen can’t go,” says Marianne Cufone, an adjunct professor at the environmental law clinic at Loyal University.

And she says the farms run the risk of large fish escapes, which might wreak havoc on the local ecology.

“There have been millions of fish that have escaped all over the world and are causing problems — not just genetic problems, but things like spreading diseases between captive fish and wild fish,” Cufone says. Fish food and waste could also fall out of the pens and affect other marine life.

NOAA officials say they took all of this into account already by weighing thousands of public comments and enforcing certain environmental safeguards, like constant monitoring of cages.

Raising fish in the ocean won’t be quick or easy, says Rusty Gaude, a fisheries expert with Louisiana State University. He notes that NOAA is setting a lot of environmental rules, which can be burdensome. And then there’s the threat that hurricanes pose to floating fish farms.

“These initial efforts may go through some rather painful growing pains,” he says.

But he thinks that the plan will become a reality.

“Eventually, the world and the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana will see aquaculture here in the Gulf of Mexico,” he says.

NOAA and other federal agencies say the first permits could be approved in two years.

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Let's Get People Talking

Michigan Radio #electionfeels

What happens if NPR and its Member stations asked people all over the country the same question?

This year NPR’s political team has worked hard to find new ways to address the campaign—getting past the horse race to the crucial conversations happening across the country.

During the last week of January, NPR piloted a coordinated political conversation with several Member stations to create a national conversation around a topic that’s on everyone’s mind: voter anxiety.

Tracy Wahl, NPR’s Executive Producer for Editorial Franchises, managed the pilot: “This coordinated approach creates something bigger than the sum of its parts.”

Here’s how it worked:

Michigan Radio #electionfeels Michigan Radio hide caption

toggle caption Michigan Radio

On Morning Edition on January 25, Mara Liasson reported on the theme of anxiety in the electorate.

We invited all Member stations to participate by asking their listeners “Why is America anxious?” in their call-in, locally-produced talk-shows and in their reporting.

In addition, The PBS NewsHour picked up on the themes raised in Mara Liasson’s piece with a segment about the politics of fear, as part of our upcoming joint convention coverage.

We then asked Member stations if they would like to participate further by sending audio to Morning Edition for broadcast pieces to air on Friday, January 29.

In addition to the broadcast elements, one station got really creative on social media: Michigan Radio, for example, asked for selfies of people’s moods.

30 Member stations in 18 states and the District of Colombia dedicated a portion of a locally-produced show to the theme. There was wide variation in the approach that each station took. Some hosted call-in shows with voters, some booked experts or analysts and some devoted as much as two hours to the theme of voter mood before the election.

30 Member stations in 18 states and the District of Colombia dedicated a portion of a locally-produced show to the theme.

NPR

25 Member stations in 16 states sent audio to NPR to be considered for the Friday Morning Edition segment. This audio included pullouts from the shows, reported pieces, and comments from voters.

25 Member stations in 16 states sent audio to NPR to be considered for the Friday Morning Edition segment.

25 Member stations in 16 states sent audio to NPR to be considered for the Friday Morning Edition segment. NPR hide caption

toggle caption NPR

At the end of the week, Steve Inskeep interviewed two hosts of local talk shows:

WJCT, Jacksonville, Florida—First Coast Connect with Melissa Ross

KNPR, Las Vegas, Nevada—State of Nevada with Carrie Kaufman

The show also broadcast tape sent by five other Member stations:

KQED, San Francisco, California – The Forum with Michael Krasny; NHPR, New Hampshire – The Exchange with Laura Knoy; WVXU, Cincinnati, Ohio; KERA, Dallas, Texas; GPB, Atlanta, Georgia.

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When Every Drop Of Water Could Be Poison: A Flint Mother's Story

Jeneyah McDonald stands amid cases of bottled water in the kitchen of her home in Flint, Mich. Before water donations arrived in Flint, McDonald estimates she spent $100 out of her $300 weekly grocery bill buying safe water for her family.

Jeneyah McDonald stands amid cases of bottled water in the kitchen of her home in Flint, Mich. Before water donations arrived in Flint, McDonald estimates she spent $100 out of her $300 weekly grocery bill buying safe water for her family. Laura McDermott for NPR hide caption

toggle caption Laura McDermott for NPR

The problems with high lead levels in Flint, Mich.’s water started in April 2014, when the city switched water sources and began drawing its supply from the Flint River. The new water was harder, and government officials allowed it to corrode the city’s pipes, leaching lead and other toxins into the tap water.

Even though the city switched back to its original supply in October 2015, the damaged pipes continue to contaminate the water, and Flint’s nearly 100,000 residents don’t know when the water will be safe to drink again — even though they’re still paying for it.

Jeneyah McDonald and her family are among those who are affected. All Things Considered met them on a recent reporting trip and will follow up with them in the months and years to come.


It’s early in the afternoon on a cold, wintry day, and Jeneyah McDonald is preparing a dinner of baked chicken with baby lima beans and rice for her family.

The Flint resident moves smoothly around her small kitchen, able to cook without even thinking — except when she finds herself reaching for the kitchen faucet to turn on the tap water. The small habit she once took for granted could now be dangerous.

McDonald pours from a gallon of spring water to rinse vegetables while preparing a meal at her home in Flint. She uses at least two gallons of water each day to cook dinner.

McDonald pours from a gallon of spring water to rinse vegetables while preparing a meal at her home in Flint. She uses at least two gallons of water each day to cook dinner. Laura McDermott for NPR hide caption

toggle caption Laura McDermott for NPR

Her 6-year-old son, Justice, plays nearby.

“What did I tell you about that water?” she asks.

“It’s poison,” he answers.

Government negligence allowed lead and other poisons to get into the water. Now, nobody knows how long it will take until it will be safe to drink from the tap again. For families like the McDonalds, giving up tap water means changing even the smallest of their routines.

So Jeyenah, a substitute teacher, taught her son that the water is poison because, she says, “I don’t know any way to explain to a 6-year-old why you can’t take a bath any more every day, why you can’t help Mommy wash the dishes anymore … and that way he’ll know I’m serious, don’t play with it, even if I’m not looking.”

Jeneyah’s dinner recipes all have a new ingredient these days. She says she’s been using bottled water so long, she knows how many it takes to fill each of her pots. For the small one she’s using to boil the lima beans: two. For a bigger pot, like the one to make spaghetti: seven.

Earl and Jeneyah McDonald pose for a portrait with their sons Justice, 6, and Josiah, 2, at their home in Flint. The McDonalds have had to teach their sons that the water is poison and not to go near it or use it.

Earl and Jeneyah McDonald pose for a portrait with their sons Justice, 6, and Josiah, 2, at their home in Flint. The McDonalds have had to teach their sons that the water is poison and not to go near it or use it. Laura McDermott for NPR hide caption

toggle caption Laura McDermott for NPR

Twisting open the bottle caps is time-consuming and sometimes painful for her arthritic hands. But she doesn’t trust the city-issued water filter for her kitchen faucet, so she puts up with the pain to ensure her two sons are drinking uncontaminated water.

As she waits for the water to boil, 43-year-old Jeneyah recalls her childhood, when bottled water was a luxury, and she could drink straight from the water hose. She doesn’t think that will ever happen in Flint again, not for her anyway.

“I will never trust this water ever again,” she says, shaking her head. “My boys will never experience the childhood I experienced in Flint, drinking water out of a water hose.”

It all started two years ago, when the city switched its water supply. Jeneyah, like many of Flint’s residents, immediately knew something was wrong. The water was a funny beige color and smelled like sewage one day, like a swimming pool the next.

Eventually, she started buying bottled water, on top of paying a water bill every month. It was expensive. At the time, Jeneyah was working at a homeless shelter. Her husband, 42-year-old Earl, was unable to work due to a disability.

“My food bill for a week would be upwards of $250 to $300, and at least 100 of that was water,” Jeneyah says. “No food stamps, no assistance, just having to do what I have to do because I have to keep my boys safe.”

The family practically went broke buying cases of bottled water, she says, and even that wasn’t enough to protect her and her family. After weeks of showering in the tap water, Jeneyah’s hair started coming out in clumps. She used to be known for her long, flowing hair.

“It’s gone,” she says. “That was part of me.” Now, she has a short bob.

McDonald holds 6-year-old Justice's wrists to show the eczema he developed three years ago. It's unclear whether the water caused the eczema, but his mother says it does aggravate the condition, because the rash never calms down or goes away fully.

McDonald holds 6-year-old Justice’s wrists to show the eczema he developed three years ago. It’s unclear whether the water caused the eczema, but his mother says it does aggravate the condition, because the rash never calms down or goes away fully. Laura McDermott for NPR hide caption

toggle caption Laura McDermott for NPR

Even so, she doesn’t worry so much about her hair. What she really worries about is the damage to her sons.

Six-year-old Justice has eczema, dark rashes on his wrists and chin where he says “maybe a bear scratched me.” His doctor has prescribed him medicated creams and ointments, but none of them seem to be working. The rashes persist. In Flint, there’s no way to know if the eczema or the hair loss comes from the water or something else.

Two-year-old Josiah has problems, too. Lead poisoning can lower young children’s IQ and slow their development, something that’s constantly on Jeneyah’s mind. She remembers filling his baby bottles with formula made with water from the tap, and she feels guilty, as if she should have done something sooner.

“Even now, I can see slower developments in Josiah. And, you know, who’s to say it’s not from the water?” she asks.

McDonald unloads cases of bottled water from her car to bring to her godbrother Brent Diggs, who is handicapped and often unable to pick up water himself, at his home in Flint.

McDonald unloads cases of bottled water from her car to bring to her godbrother Brent Diggs, who is handicapped and often unable to pick up water himself, at his home in Flint. Laura McDermott for NPR hide caption

toggle caption Laura McDermott for NPR

So, in an effort to keep the water from harming her boys more, her and her husband’s daily routines now includes rounds of water pickups.

On this wintry afternoon, Jeneyah finishes seasoning her chicken, covers it with foil and puts it in the oven. With the lima beans on the stove to cook, and the rice ready to go after, she puts on her boots and coat and heads to the car.

Her first stop is Triumph Church. She likes coming here because they give based on how much each family thinks it needs. A church volunteer approaches Jeneyah’s car window, and asks how much water she wants.

“How many can I have?” Jeneyah asks. “About five or six of them?”

“Sounds good to me!” the volunteer responds.

Other volunteers load the trunk of the car with six cases of water, each containing a couple dozen half-liter bottles, donated from people all over the country, as far away as California.

Jeneyah McDonald hugs Tyrone Knight, a previously homeless veteran, after spotting him walking along the road while out on a water run. McDonald met Knight while working to find him housing during her time working at My Brother's Keeper, a homeless shelter in Flint.

Jeneyah McDonald hugs Tyrone Knight, a previously homeless veteran, after spotting him walking along the road while out on a water run. McDonald met Knight while working to find him housing during her time working at My Brother’s Keeper, a homeless shelter in Flint. Laura McDermott for NPR hide caption

toggle caption Laura McDermott for NPR

“That’s amazing,” Jeneyah says. “I’m proud of us, human beings. I was not liking humans for a while there!”

Next stop is a firehouse, where National Guard troops in their camouflage fatigues stand in front of large pallets of bottled water. Here, the water comes from the government — and the troops limit the amount each person can pick up. Two cases at one firehouse, a couple gallons at another.

It’s not enough, Jeneyah says, not for a family of four. She also likes to keep a small stockpile of water, just in case. If one of her children spills something or has another accident, it can take as many as seven cases for a bath. If a snowstorm hits or she’s unable to make her rounds, her family needs enough backup to get through a few days.

It takes her about an hour to hit all the stops each day, and she has no idea how many weeks or months this daily routine will have to continue.

“Is this America?” she asks. “I am stupefied that I’m not in, like, Ethiopia or somewhere. You’re talking about clean water.”

Back at home, she unloads the cases of water and opens another two bottles to boil some rice, the smell of baked chicken pungent in the air. Her sons play in the other room, a children’s television show in the background.

She worries that the donations will stop coming as people pay less attention to Flint, that government help for the boys will stop once the immediate crisis subsides.

“They look OK today. What will they look like in five years? In 10 years?” she wonders. “And, at that point, where will all of these government officials be then, when I am dealing with the repercussions of that water?”

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Infomagical: WNYC's 'Note To Self' Tries To Make Information Overload Disappear

NPR’s Ari Shapiro checks in with Manoush Zomorodi of WNYC’s podcast, “Note To Self,” about their “infomagical” challenge. They’re trying to mediate the problem of information overload and have some results to share.

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GOP Governors Bank On New Hampshire To Jump Start Struggling Campaigns

The governors running for the Republican nomination — Jeb Bush, Chris Christie and John Kasich — are banking on a good performance in New Hampshire to buoy their struggling campaigns.

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'We're Mostly Republicans': New Hampshire Voters Explained By 'Our Town'

After NPR’s Bob Mondello used The Music Man to help explain the Iowa caucuses, he wished there was a musical of Our Town so he could do the same for New Hampshire. It turns out there is one.

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Outrage Over Egyptian President's Red Carpet Arrival

Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi's motorcade drives on a red carpet during a trip to open a social housing project in a suburb of Cairo on Saturday. One local newspaper devoted its entire front page Monday to accusing Sisi of decadence even as he asks Egyptians to tighten their belts.

Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi’s motorcade drives on a red carpet during a trip to open a social housing project in a suburb of Cairo on Saturday. One local newspaper devoted its entire front page Monday to accusing Sisi of decadence even as he asks Egyptians to tighten their belts. AP hide caption

toggle caption AP

Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi rolled up with his motorcade over a massive red carpet to the opening of a social housing project, sparking outrage about apparent wastefulness in a country suffering from high levels of poverty.

According to local media reports, the red carpet was rolled out in 6th of October City, a suburb of Egypt’s capital Cairo.

Egyptian media, which is largely supportive of the president, was unusually critical of the entrance.

“What is this?” says talk show host Youssef Hosseini, sounding shocked. “It’s not the responsibility of Sisi — the red carpet — but who was the one responsible? … Why did they do it and on what basis?”

You can see the scale of the massive red carpet starting at 0:38 of this video from Hosseini’s show on the independent, pro-government ONTV channel. The carpet weaves through the suburb’s streets and even appears to wrap through a sporting club.

YouTube

At a time when Sisi’s human rights record is under fire, his use of the red carpet drew uncomfortable comparisons to prominent dictators.

“The Sultan [of Brunei] doesn’t even drive in a car on a red carpet,” Hosseini says, suggesting that buying blankets for the poor would be a better use for this money.

And in a cartoon by Andeel on the independent news website Mada Masr, a speech bubble from under a red carpet saying “At least we are not like Syria and I…,” which abruptly stops as a car rolls over it.

New cartoon from @_Andeel_: The red carpet https://t.co/T1HkTRLPw4

— Mada Masr مدى مصر (@MadaMasr) February 7, 2016

Since he came to power in 2014, the former military leader has staked his reputation on reforming Egypt’s ailing economy, which was hard-hit by years of unrest following the ouster of longtime dictator Hosni Mubarak in 2011.

More than 1 in 4 Egyptians live below the poverty line, according to government figures.

Quickly after taking office, Sisi slashed Egypt’s bloated fuel subsidy system — a move that economists said was necessary but that previous leaders had been either unable or unwilling to do.

Sisi’s flashy entrance on Saturday stood in stark contrast to his remarks at the inauguration ceremony — in which he called for Egyptians to “contribute to combating ongoing challenges through rationalizing consumption rates,” according to a statement from his office. He “noted the importance of raising the citizens’ awareness of the challenges that the state faces as well as of the cost of services they are offered, which exceeds the value of what they pay for.”

Sisi also suggested that the state may need to make cuts to its funding for clean water, The Associated Press reports.

“He said the state spends around 40 million pounds ($5.1 million) a day to provide clean water, with only part of the cost passed on to consumers.

” ‘One (cubic) meter of water that reaches you costs me this much, and you are taking it by that much, and the state is unable to continue this way,’ el-Sissi said in a televised conference.”

The news service says Brig. Gen. Ehab el-Ahwagy appeared on several talk shows following widespread criticism about the red carpet, saying “that the carpet was not purchased by al-Sisi’s administration and had been used for more than three years on similar occasions.”

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UNICEF Estimate Of Female Genital Mutiliation Up By 70 Million

Doctors are about to circumcise an Indonesian baby in Bandung, Indonesia in 2013. Indonesia authorized medical personnel to perform the procedure in 2010, then revoked the authorization in 2014.

Doctors are about to circumcise an Indonesian baby in Bandung, Indonesia in 2013. Indonesia authorized medical personnel to perform the procedure in 2010, then revoked the authorization in 2014. Adek Berry/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption Adek Berry/AFP/Getty Images

Forget about the conventional wisdom that Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) rarely takes place outside of Africa and the Middle East. Recalibrate that to 30 countries on several continents, according to a new statistical analysis by UNICEF that calculates that at least 200 million females today have undergone some form of the procedure.

About 60 million of affected females come from one country: Indonesia, where about half of the girls age 11 and below have undergone the practice. Yet this is the first time that Indonesia has been included in UNICEF data. We asked Tanya Sukhija, program officer with Equality Now, an organization that supports the rights of women and girls, about FGM in Indonesia and around the world. The interview has been edited for clarity and length.

In light of the high numbers in Indonesia, why wasn’t it included before?

The Population Council [a research and programmatic group] had conducted a study in Indonesia in 2003, but that is outdated. This is the first time the government collected the information.

I think they are seeing a lot of international pressure to take the issue seriously.

Collecting the data is a great step forward in Indonesia and around the world.

What do the numbers — 70 million more worldwide in 2016 than in 2014 — tell us?

The data shows that this really is a huge problem and action is needed to curtail it. Beyond the 60 million added from Indonesia, the additional 10 million comes from population growth. Growing populations mean that if we do not do more to end the practice, the numbers will also grow.

Is FGM ongoing in other countries not accounted for in the latest UNICEF report?

There are many other places where the data is not robust. There is one particular community in India, the Dawoodi Bohra, that does practice FGM — but without the data we don’t know the extent. This is just one example. There have been reports in Europe, Australia, North America, South America. This is really a global issue.

Does the FGM practice in Indonesia differ from elsewhere?

There are definitely variations in the way it is performed among and within countries.

But regardless of the type, it is all considered female genital mutilation. It can result in being more susceptible to infections after the procedure, to obstetrical complications, pain during intercourse and childbirth and mental health consequences.

What needs to be done to stop the practice?

We need laws in place anywhere that girls are affected. Law is the foundation for protection of any human rights of women and girls. In Indonesia, we are working with our partner there, Kalyanamitra calling for a clear law criminalizing FGM and also anyone who practices it.

Medicalization of the procedure [allowing medical personnel to perform it] is also problematic. It lends it legitimacy. In 2010, the Indonesia government authorized medical personnel to do this. Under international pressure the [government] revoked that in 2014. The new regulation says instead that the procedure should be done with regard to the health and safety of the girl. It isn’t much better but it shows that they are making changes, even though they are not going far enough.

Are there programs that have succeeded in other countries?

I would point to Kenya as an example: They have a law banning FGM, and they are also doing a lot to implement it. They have an anti-FGM board, a government body charged with making sure the law is followed, and with education and raising awareness [of the issue].

They also have a special unit in their public prosecutions office to investigate and prosecute FGM cases, and prosecutors who are specially trained to pursue such cases. There are also a number of organizations in Kenya helping girls trying to escape FGM, by providing shelters, for instance, and working with local, traditional and religious leaders. People also use alternative rites of passage ceremonies, celebrating reaching puberty not with cutting but with rituals. This highlights the need for having a law as well as other mechanisms to support the law.

The bottom line is that we need laws in place anywhere that girls are affected, as well as support and education. FGM is not just an African problem. This is an international issue.

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The Stream: Cruz On Drafting Women; Jeb Bush Won't 'Blame Obama'

Audience members recite the Pledge of Allegiance at the start of a town hall-style campaign event held by Ted Cruz Monday in Barrington, N.H.

The Stream is your source for news, photos and analysis from NPR’s political team on the ground in New Hampshire. For more coverage and analysis visit NPRPolitics.org or elections.npr.org.

The Stream

  • Cruz doesn’t want daughters “in a foxhole with a 220-pound jihadist psychopath”

    Audience members recite the Pledge of Allegiance at the start of a town hall-style campaign event held by Ted Cruz Monday in Barrington, N.H. Robert F. Bukaty/AP hide caption

    toggle caption Robert F. Bukaty/AP

    Ted Cruz held a town hall at a manufacturing plant in Barrington N.H. – a more rural area than other candidates have been, which seems to be a strategy heading into Tuesday. It was a full crowd but not packed – it was also a big room. Most people I talked to were pretty decided — though I talked to two voters who had been deciding between Trump and Cruz and said they had had enough of Trump’s language and were going with Cruz

    At a retail stop at a meat shop/restaurant in Raymond, N.H., he repeated his thoughts on not drafting women — invoking his own daughters again. He seemed to expand/clarify his comments from yesterday, saying he doesn’t want his daughters “in a foxhole with a 220-pound jihadist psychopath.”

    He’s also playing up endorsements he got from ex-Rand Paul supporters.

    In a press availability here in Raymond, though, he was downplaying expectations. He says he was underestimated in Iowa (not really — but the win was more decisive than many thought) and he talked of expanding the GOP coalition to include Reagan Democrats. He said polls seemed to show “Either Rubio or Trump” could win and when asked how seriously he was taking N.H., he said, “well I’m here aren’t I?” After some speculation he might go straight to South Carolina, Cruz’s campaign emphasized to reporters it WILL be in New Hampshire Tuesday night. – Jessica Taylor

  • Jeb Bush: “I will not blame Obama”

    Republican presidential candidate Jeb Bush throws a snowball following a campaign event Monday in Nashua, N.H.

    Republican presidential candidate Jeb Bush throws a snowball following a campaign event Monday in Nashua, N.H. Steven Senne/AP hide caption

    toggle caption Steven Senne/AP

    At the Nashua Country Club, Jeb Bush started with an awkward joke about how this one time, someone introduced him who had gone on Wikipedia and discovered Jeb was an avid rock climber and had a secret passion of being a movie star.

    “I have no interest in being a movie star, you can tell that from my candidacy can’t you?”

    He went on to say there are probably unemployed kids (with student debt that are stuck in their parents’ basement with Cheetos stains on their t-shirts) who play games on the internet to see who can edit Wikipedia pages as a game with their friends all over the world.

    His advice: If you do have a Wikipedia page, check it once in a while, because you too may be an avid rock climber.

    He went on to talk about how the Bush family is strong. He said he’s proud of his dad and his brother and that it was an incredible honor to have his mom come up and campaign for him. “The family matters to us.”

    He then ticked off his bio and talked about challenges he faced as a Florida governor and how that prepares him for the presidency day one.

    He took shots at Trump, but nothing new.

    He also said he takes issue with presidents that blame predecessors. “When I’m president, I will not blame Obama for a single thing. Because the day I’m sworn into office it’s on my watch, whatever it is.”

    He ended his remarks telling the gathering of about 50 people: “I will not let you down.” — Brakkton Booker

  • Clinton supporters chant “it’s time”

    Hillary Clinton speaks at Manchester Community College Monday.

    Hillary Clinton speaks at Manchester Community College Monday. Justin Sullivan/Getty Images hide caption

    toggle caption Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

    At Manchester Community College Clinton is having her first event on the eve of the primary. She’s packed the gymnasium here with a huge overflow crowd who will only be able to peer through the glass.

    Eruptions of the chant, “it’s time. It’s time for a woman in the White House. It’s time.”

    Voters I’ve talked to say her pragmatism resonates. It doesn’t do any good to dream big dreams like Bernie does if none of them come true. Clinton may not promise the sun, moon and stars but her experience, intelligence will achieve substantive ends.

    Why is Bernie leading in N.H.? Voters in the state are dubious that it’s because he’s a next door neighbor — even though that’s the Clinton campaign’s explanation. Clinton supporters say he’s turning on young voters who are just more prone to idealism, but if Sanders is the nominee, he won’t get elected and then we’ll all be stuck with a Republican president.

    Bernie wants a revolution? Clinton supporters ask, how about finishing the women’s rights revolution and getting a woman in the White House? –Ailsa Chang

  • Waving for Bernie

    Volunteers for Bernie Sanders in Peterborough, N.H.

    Allegra Boverman/NHPR

    Spotted by our friends at New Hampshire Public Radio: Volunteers hold Bernie Sanders signs in Peterborough, N.H. on Sunday afternoon.

  • Christie loving his moment

    New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie at a town hall event at a metal fabrication company Monday in Hudson, N.H.

    New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie at a town hall event at a metal fabrication company Monday in Hudson, N.H. Dominick Reuter/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

    toggle caption Dominick Reuter/AFP/Getty Images

    Chris Christie is acting like a guy polling near the top — not mired in single digits. Today is his 72nd day campaigning in New Hampshire. He is loving his moment as the big bad Goliath who toppled Rubio’s David in the debate Saturday night. (My words not his). And many who came to see him told me it gave them reason to consider him for the first time, or even to support him.

    On chatter that it was too little too late, Christie says he went after Rubio at the time and place of his choosing. I talked to a Ted Cruz supporter who switched to Christie after a town hall yesterday. And a Kasich supporter now leaning to Christie after the debate and after seeing him directly, and with great detail, talk about how he has handled actual crises (Sandy) as governor. (Traffic Jams did not come up).

    As for Ohio Gov. John Kasich, overflow crowd for him in Concord yesterday as well. It was his 102nd N.H. town hall. Numbers 103, 104, 105 are scheduled for today.

    Kasich has also been gushing that journalist David Maraniss was on his bus and was interviewing him telling the crowd “The guy’s a Pulitzer Prize winner!”

    My understanding is that Kasich – proud son of the scrappy town of McKees Rocks, Penn. – loved Maraniss’s bio of the late, great Pittsburgh Pirate Roberto Clemente a few books ago. — Don Gonyea

  • Trump goes small

    People wait in line as snow falls to enter a campaign event for Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump at the Lions Club Monday in Londonderry, N.H.

    People wait in line as snow falls to enter a campaign event for Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump at the Lions Club Monday in Londonderry, N.H. David Goldman/AP hide caption

    toggle caption David Goldman/AP

    Trump starts his day at an Elks Lodge in Salem, N.H. This is a small venue, seating no more than a couple hundred. It’s already nearly full and the event doesn’t start for more than half an hour, with people still coming in. Trump has four events scheduled today, most of them smaller venues like this – he’s making a final retail push right before the primary.

    Several voters I talked to were happy that he’s holding this event, because some say it’s more convenient for them than a large rally. Most supporters don’t seem worried that he will falter in New Hampshire like he did in Iowa (obviously his polling lead here is much larger). Most here seem to have made up their minds for Trump. –Sarah McCammon

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