Apple Vs. The FBI: The Unanswered Questions And Unsettled Issues

A protester supporting Apple in its battle against the FBI holds up an iPhone that reads, "No Entry" outside an Apple store in New York on Feb. 23.

A protester supporting Apple in its battle against the FBI holds up an iPhone that reads, “No Entry” outside an Apple store in New York on Feb. 23. Bryan Thomas/Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption Bryan Thomas/Getty Images

The FBI’s success in unlocking, without Apple’s help, the iPhone of one of the San Bernardino terrorists marks a dramatic end to the heated dispute between the Justice Department and the tech giant about the scope of the government’s power to compel a company to weaken its digital security for a criminal investigation.

Below are some of the key takeaways — and mysteries — left in the wake of the case.

What has been settled? The particular case of this specific phone, though we don’t know yet what exactly the investigators found inside.

(A quick recap) Because the information on the iPhone used by Syed Rizwan Farook was encrypted and uncrackable, the investigators needed to guess the passcode that locked the phone’s contents. The FBI wanted to hook it up to a computer that would figure out the four-digit combination, but the phone’s security features required manual password attempts and would have wiped the phone clean after 10 wrong tries. So the FBI got a court order compelling Apple to write special software that would lift those security features, which Apple fought.

After weeks of saying that Apple’s special software was the only way to safely get inside the phone (read here why the NSA wasn’t an option), the Justice Department last week said a third party proposed a new, undisclosed method — and on Monday, the method was proven successful.

If unlocking this particular iPhone was the goal, “you could argue that this is a success because the FBI got the information much more quickly than they would have through the court system,” says Eric Berg, a lawyer at Foley & Lardner and former federal prosecutor who focused on special in electronic surveillance.

But was this iPhone’s content the entire goal? The case sets no precedent and another similar dispute is likely.

After years of settling these kinds of government requests behind closed doors, the standoff over the San Bernardino shooter’s iPhone escalated the debate over law enforcement’s ability to force cooperation from an unwilling third party.

One of the major stakes in this standoff between Apple and the FBI was the ability of the government to force cooperation from an unwilling third party.

The government’s court order against Apple relied on a broad 18th-century law called All Writs Act, which has been used to compel assistance from other companies, but the scuttling of the legal case against Apple leaves no case law for how All Writs can be used to bypass digital security.

One down, 200+ more to go; FBI successfully got into SB shooter’s phone without Apple’s help.

— matt blaze (@mattblaze) March 28, 2016

That means this dispute is likely to be replayed, with Apple or another maker of encrypted devices — or encrypted messaging — as new technologies become a growing element of criminal investigations.

“Unfortunately, this news appears to be just a delay of an inevitable fight over whether the FBI can force Apple to undermine the security of its own products,” Alex Abdo, staff lawyer at the American Civil Liberties Union, said in a statement on Monday.

A Justice Department spokeswoman, in her statement on Monday, acknowledged that the government is likely to continue asking tech companies for help:

“It remains a priority for the government to ensure that law enforcement can obtain crucial digital information to protect national security and public safety, either with cooperation from relevant parties, or through the court system when cooperation fails. We will continue to pursue all available options for this mission, including seeking the cooperation of manufacturers and relying upon the creativity of both the public and private sectors.”

Can the FBI now get into all iPhones? It depends on what method it used, which we may never find out.

We don’t know the details of what method the FBI used to get inside this locked iPhone, and the government may try to keep it classified. “There’s not really any requirement for disclosure because they’re not involving Apple,” says Berg, the former federal prosecutor.

Apple says the FBI has not shared its technique with the company either, and its lawyers have previously said they’d push for such a disclosure.

Whether the technique can be applied to the hundreds of other locked Apple devices seized in other criminal investigations around the country depends on what exactly it entails.

According to iPhone forensics researcher Jonathan Zdziarski, if the method relied on tinkering with the hardware inside the phone (like the memory chip cloning method we described here), that could be re-used on other older devices, like the iPhone 5C at the center of this dispute. But if the method exploits a weakness in the phone’s software, Zdziarski says the technique could work on newer devices.

If investigators do want to reapply this tool to other traditional investigations, they’d need a search warrant with probable cause.

NPR business intern Naomi LaChance contributed to this story.

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Meet A Tractor That Can Plow Fields And Talk To The Cloud

Hello Tractor's machine can plow and text.

Hello Tractor’s machine can plow and text. courtesy of Hello Tractor hide caption

toggle caption courtesy of Hello Tractor

At the trendy South by Southwest conference in mid-March, there was buzz about music, movies, President Obama’s keynote address … and tractors.

Why? Because there’s a new, low-cost (but pretty smart) mini-tractor that’s part of a business start-up in Abuja, Nigeria, called “Hello Tractor.” And it was part of a SxSW competition.

What makes the tractors smart? Each one comes with a GPS antenna. So when the tractor has been used enough to need maintenance, Hello Tractor will alert the owner. Even better, the company can use data on tractor location to play matchmaker. If a certain farmer needs a tractor, the company can contact the nearest tractor owner, who’ll ride over and, for a fee, perform the services needed on the neighboring farm.

The idea is so bright that the company founders raised $3 million in seed money from USAID and other sources. And so far they’ve sold 1,000 tractors to farmers in Nigeria at $4,000 a machine.

The entrepreneur behind Hello Tractor is a city boy: founder and CEO Jehiel Oliver, 33, from Cleveland, Ohio. He’s got a masters in economics from Cornell University.

His life story doesn’t exactly scream “agriculture.” But a couple of years ago he became interested in the problems of the global poor, who earn much of their income on the farm. And he noticed that “most banks didn’t lend to farmers.”

So the idea of a cheap tractor captivated him. It fit with his lifelong goal of wanting “to make a difference in the world.”

When he talked to his wife and some friends, he thought they would probably dis the idea as some “kumbaya” thing. Instead, the group embraced it. They researched Nigeria and learned that it’s the most populous country in Africa with agricultural lands as vast as Texas. They also learned that, yes, an inexpensive tractor can be life-changing. Tractors can plow in hours what a crew plows in days, so a farmer with a tractor can plant early enough to take full advantage of the rainy season, bringing better yields.

But first farmers have to be able to afford the tractor. So instead of thinking big, Oliver thought small. “A typical entry-level tractor in Nigeria is 55 horsepower,” he says, “Ours is 15. [The] 55 horse power tractor [costs] around $40,000. [Hello Tractor] is $4,000.”

Oliver shared those numbers at SXSW’s Global Innovation Challenge, a pitch competition that he won. Part of the deal is that he now goes on to attend President Obama’s Global Entrepreneurship Summit in June.

Why are tractors so important in Africa?

Calestous Juma is an expert.

Not just as a Harvard scholar. But as a native Kenyan. When he was growing up, his family rarely went grocery shopping. They fished and harvested their food by hand.

Now at Harvard’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs he leads the center’s Agricultural Innovation Policy in Africa Project.

His research shows there’s a huge tractor shortage in Africa. Worldwide you can find an average of 200 tractors every 100,000 square kilometers (roughly 70,000 square miles). In Africa the average is 13.

And tractors are very helpful, although they have their pitfalls.

“Tractors are very controversial in the developing world [in general] and in Africa [in particular],” Juma says. On the one hand, they can help small-scale farmers plant on time in an efficient, cost-effective way. And if the farmer doesn’t have enough laborers, the tractor is invaluable. In places where there are laborers, however, tractors get the blame for taking workers’ jobs.

Tractors also need maintenance and spare parts, which are not readily available in much of Africa.

So imagine you are a farmer who has saved, possibly for years to buy a tractor. What do you do when the tractor breaks down? Because it will break down. “It takes only one piece,” Juma says “and then you can’t use the rest of the tractor.”

In some parts of Africa, it can take months to get your hands on a spare part.

Hello Tractor’s Oliver says his company is trying to fix that. If a part breaks, farmers can use the tractor’s Short Message Service and text message Abuja headquarters to buy a replacement.

If Hello Tractor gets some traction, its potential is huge. Last year the Tractor Owners and Hiring Facilities Association of Nigeria reported a shortage of 73,000 tractors for the country’s agricultural activities.

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'Girls & Sex' And The Importance Of Talking To Young Women About Pleasure

Close up low section of two girls sitting side by side

Natalie Wilson/Flickr State/Getty Images

Author Peggy Orenstein says that when it comes to sexuality, girls today are receiving mixed messages. Girls hear that “they’re supposed to be sexy, they’re supposed to perform sexually for boys,” Orenstein tells Fresh Air’s Terry Gross, “but that their sexual pleasure is unspoken.”

While researching her new book, Girls & Sex, Orenstein spoke with more than 70 young women between the ages of 15 and 20 about their attitudes and early experiences with the full range of physical intimacy.

She says that pop culture and pornography sexualize young women by creating undue pressure to look and act sexy. These pressures affect both the sexual expectations that girls put on themselves and the expectations boys project onto them.

Peggy Orenstein has been chronicling the lives of girls for over 25 years. Her book Cinderella Ate My Daughter described the impact of "princess culture" on young girls.

Peggy Orenstein has been chronicling the lives of girls for over 25 years. Her book Cinderella Ate My Daughter described the impact of “princess culture” on young girls. Michael Todd/Harper hide caption

toggle caption Michael Todd/Harper

Orenstein adds that girls she spoke to were often navigating between being considered “slutty” or a “prude,” and that their own desires were often lost in the shuffle. Girls, Orenstein says, are being taught to please their partners without regard to their own desires.

“When I would talk to girls, for instance, about oral sex, that was something that they were doing from a pretty young age, and it tended to go one way [and not be reciprocated],” Orenstein explains.

Orenstein recommends that parents examine the messages they send regarding girls and sexuality. “One of the things that I really took away from this research, is the absolute importance of not just talking about [girls] as victims, or not just talking about them as these new aggressors, but really surfacing these ideas of talking clearly and honestly to girls about their own desires and their own pleasures,” she says.

Interview Highlights

On the silence surrounding girls’ genitals

Parents don’t tend to name their infant baby’s genitals if they’re girls. For boys they’ll say, “Here’s your nose, here’s your shoulders, here’s your waist, here’s your pee pee, whatever.” But with girls there’s this sort of blank space – it’s right from navel to knees, and not naming something makes it quite literally unspeakable.

Then they go into puberty education class and girls have period and unwanted pregnancy, and you see only the inside anatomy, that thing that looks like a steer head, with the ovaries and everything, and then it greys out between the legs, so we never talk about the vulva, we never talk about the clitoris, very few girls explore, there’s no self-knowledge, and then they go into their sexual experiences and we expect them to be able to have some sense of entitlement, some sense of knowledge, to be able to assert themselves, to have some sense of equality, and it’s just not realistic that that’s going to happen.

On whether kids are having more sex at a younger age and the prevalence of oral sex

Kids are not having intercourse at a younger age, and they’re not having more intercourse than they used to. They are engaging in other forms of sexual behavior, younger and more often. And one of the things that I became really clear on was that we have to broaden our definition of sex, because by ignoring and denying these other forms of sexual behavior that kids are engaging in we are opening the door to a lot of risky behavior, and we are opening the door to a lot of disrespect. …

[Oral sex] is considered to be less intimate than intercourse, and something that girls say repeatedly to me would be, “It’s no big deal.” There’s an argument that some of the girls have in the book about exactly what it is. Is it sex? Is it not sex? Is it no big deal? … It was something that they felt that they could do that boys expected. That they could do to not have to do something else. It was a way that they could cultivate popularity, it was a way that they felt interestingly, they would talk about feeling more in control, than if it was reciprocal. …

They felt it was safer sex, which is true and not true, because the rates of STDs have actually shot up among teenagers, even though the rates of intercourse have not, because they think that oral sex is safer sex and things like gonorrhea are spreading much more quickly.

On talking to girls about their partners not reciprocating oral sex

I starting saying, “Look, what if every time you were with a guy, he told you to go get him a glass of water from the kitchen and he never offered to get you a glass of water. Or if he did he’d say, “Ugh, you want me to get you a glass of water?” You would never stand for it! Girls, they would bust out laughing when I said that, and they’d say, “Oh, I never thought about it that way.” I thought well, maybe you should if you think that being asked repeatedly to give someone a glass of water without reciprocation is less insulting than being asked to perform a sexual act over and over. …

On what “hooking-up” means

It can mean anything. It can mean kissing, it can mean intercourse, it can mean any other form of sexual interplay. It really is a nonphrase. But what the hook-up culture means, I mean, kids did not invent casual sex, right? But what has changed is the idea that casual sex is the pathway to a relationship, that sex is a precursor rather than a function of intimacy and affection. …

[In college] pretty much if you didn’t want to stay home with microwave popcorn calling your parents, especially for freshman and sophomores, that was kind of what they did. They went out, they got drunk, they hooked up.

On drinking and hook-up culture

Hook-up culture particularly, it’s not just lubricated by alcohol anymore, it’s completely dependent on it. One sociologist told me that alcohol was what created this compulsory carelessness, so that it was a way to signal that the sex that they were having was meaningless. Alcohol, it was almost like it had replaced mutual attraction as kind of reason in and of itself to have sex, so it was a way to not care. It was a way to say, “We’re just doing this for one night.”

What was tricky was that both the thing that is held out for college students in particular, but high school students too, as “fun,” which is getting drunk and hooking up, also facilitated assault, because alcohol is really the No. 1 date drug. … We talk a lot about girls drinking and reducing girls drinking, and I think it’s very important to talk to girls about the particular effects of alcohol on their bodies, because drink for drink, we get drunker faster than boys do.

We can’t forget to talk about the impact of alcohol on boys, because we know that alcohol at best loosens inhibitions, it reduces a person’s ability to read social cues, it gives young men who might not otherwise have it, courage is probably the wrong word, but the courage, I guess, to commit an assault, or to ignore “no,” and tend to be more aggressive when they do. Alcohol also makes boys less likely to step in as bystanders when they see something occurring, than they would be if they were sober. So we really have to address both sides of this equation, if we want to reduce assault.

On the notion of multiple “virginities”

One girl said to me, “Usually the opposite of a negative is a positive, but when you’re talking about girls and sex, the opposite of slut is prude, both of which are negative. So what are you supposed to do?” So they’re always trying to walk this line where they’re not considered slutty, but they’re not considered too [much of a] prude. It’s an ever-shifting kind of dynamic, so part of that was getting rid of virginity, which often was something they did drunk, not necessarily with someone they cared that much about, and you really have to ask, is that really experience? Is the person who rushes toward intercourse wasted getting more experience than the person who spends three hours making out with a partner sober and exploring ideas about sexual tension and pleasure and what feels good? We have this weird idea, and I think that our emphasis on virginity right now is not doing girls any favors, and of course it also completely disregards gay girls.

One of the things that was really great was in talking to a gay girl I asked her, “When did you think that you had lost your virginity?” And she said, “Well, you know, I really have thought a lot about that, and I’m not really sure.” She gave a few different answers and then she said, “You know what I think? I think a girl loses her virginity when she has her first orgasm with a partner.” And it completely knocked me out. I thought, “Wow.” I know we’re not going to dismantle the idea of virginity, but what if we could broaden it to think that there’s multiple virginities, and what if that was one of them? That would totally shift our ideas of how we thought about girls and boys and sex.

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N.Y. Governor Bans Most State Travel To North Carolina Over LGBT Law

New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo speaks during a rally in March in Albany, N.Y.

New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo speaks during a rally in March in Albany, N.Y. Mike Groll/AP hide caption

toggle caption Mike Groll/AP

New York state has joined the cities of Seattle, San Francisco and New York in restricting non-essential public-employee travel to North Carolina. The moves are in response to a newly passed North Carolina law that critics say is discriminatory to the LGBT community.

New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo’s executive order bans “all taxpayer-funded trips trip to North Carolina, unless they’re essential to public health or law enforcement,” NPR’s Hansi Lo Wang tells our Newscast unit.

“From Stonewall to marriage equality, our state has been a beacon of hope and equality for the LGBT community, and we will not stand idly by as misguided legislation replicates the discrimination of the past,” Cuomo said in a statement. “As long as there is a law in North Carolina that creates the grounds for discrimination against LGBT people, I am barring non-essential travel to the state.”

The North Carolina measure was passed last week in a special session by the state’s Legislature and then immediately signed by Gov. Pat McCrory. It “blocks local governments from passing anti-discrimination rules to grant protections to gay and transgender people,” as the Two-Way has reported.

It also bars transgender people from using the single-sex restrooms and changing rooms that correspond to their gender identity.

The New York state executive order, which took effect immediately, requires a review of all requests for state-funded or state-sponsored travel to North Carolina, and bars any such travel unless it is necessary for enforcing state law, meeting contractual obligations, or “for the protection of public health, welfare and safety.”

Cuomo issued a similar order last year for travel to Indiana in response to a “religious freedom” measure in that state. He later reversed the order when the law was amended.

San Francisco Mayor Edwin Lee announced Friday that he has barred publicly funded city-employee travel to North Carolina “that is not absolutely necessary to public health and safety.”

On Monday, Seattle Mayor Ed Murray banned “official City of Seattle travel by employees to North Carolina.” He threatened to issue new orders against travel to any state that passes similar legislation.

And New York Mayor Bill de Blasio told reporters Monday that his office had “initiated a non-essential travel ban for North Carolina.”

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Watch Vetiver Perform 'Current Carry' Live At Pickathon

March 29, 20162:02 PM ET

Vetiver‘s warm ’70s folk sound seems a perfect fit for an afternoon in the woods, which is where the group happened to play during Pickathon last summer. San Franciscan Andy Cabic has led the band for more than a decade, during which he’s written appealing songs like the blissful “Current Carry,” which appears on the group’s latest album, Complete Strangers. Fruit Bats‘ Eric D. Johnson joins Vetiver on keys for this performance at the natural amphitheater under the trees.

This premiere kicks off the spring season of releases from the Pickathon Woods Stage. Each month until this summer’s festival, we’ll premiere another video from the woods. Look for the next one on April 19.

Pickathon also announced its full festival schedule today on its website, with Jeff Tweedy, Beach House, Yo La Tengo and others set to play multiple sets through the weekend festival, held August 5-7 at Pendarvis Farm outside Portland.

  • “Current Carry”

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Oscar-Winning Actress Patty Duke Dies At 69

Actress Patty Duke in 2014 in Los Angeles.

Actress Patty Duke in 2014 in Los Angeles. Ryan Miller/Invision/AP hide caption

toggle caption Ryan Miller/Invision/AP

Actress Patty Duke, who shot to fame as a teenager in the film The Miracle Worker, died Tuesday morning of sepsis from a ruptured intestine at age 69, her agent said.

“She was a wife, a mother, a grandmother, a friend, a mental health advocate and a cultural icon,” the agent’s statement said. “She will be greatly missed.”

When Duke was 12, she starred as Helen Keller in the Broadway play The Miracle Worker, NPR’s Mandalit del Barco reports.

She reprised her role in the 1962 film version, winning an Academy Award for best supporting actress when she was 16 — then youngest person to have won an Oscar.

Anne Bancroft holds Patty Duke's hand to teach her a new word in a scene from the film The Miracle Worker, in 1962.

Anne Bancroft holds Patty Duke’s hand to teach her a new word in a scene from the film The Miracle Worker, in 1962. United Artists/Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption United Artists/Getty Images

In 1963, Duke took the starring roles in a popular sitcom called The Patty Duke Show, in which she played identical cousins. NPR reported that she was the youngest actress in television to have a prime-time series built around her.

The Los Angeles Times notes that “after her successful stint as Patty and Cathy Lane on television, Duke tried to transition back to film with a controversial performance as Neely O’Hara in ‘Valley of the Dolls,’ in which the actress portrayed an alcoholic, drug-addled star.”

But Duke’s outward success belied her private struggles.

“The success … masked personal misery which included depressions that led to suicide attempts and a string of failed marriages,” NPR reported in 2000.

Duke, whose real name was Anna Pearce, wrote an autobiography in 1987 titled Call Me Anna that addressed some of these struggles.

Mandalit says Duke served as president of the Screen Actors Guild in the 1980s and adds: “After she was diagnosed with bipolar disorder, she became an advocate for mental health issues.”

In 2011, Duke made news by applying for Social Security benefits online and encouraging other seniors to do the same. She talked to NPR’s Renee Montagne about it at the time.

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What Do Colombian Rebels Do When The War Is Over?

In this Jan. 3, 2016 photo, Leonidas, a commander of the 36th Front of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, speaks to rebels at their temporary camp in Antioquia state, in the northwest Andes of Colombia. Now peace is within reach as talks between the guerrillas and the government near conclusion in Cuba, and for the first time the rebels are thinking about a future outside this jungle hideout. (AP Photo/Rodrigo Abd)

In this Jan. 3, 2016 photo, Leonidas, a commander of the 36th Front of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC, speaks to rebels at their temporary camp in Antioquia state, in the northwest Andes of Colombia. (Rodrigo Abd/AP)

After 50 years of conflict, Colombian officials say they’re close to reaching a peace settlement with the the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC.

What does that mean for rebels who have spent most of their adult lives fighting? The New York Times’ Nicholas Casey recently spent four days in a FARC camp in the mountains of Colombia.

He tells Here & Now‘s Meghna Chakrabarti that visiting the camp was like stepping back in time. Many of the rebels have never seen a city or walked on asphalt, and they have a hard time imagining a place for themselves in modern Colombia.


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In Venezuela, An Electricity Crisis Adds To Country's Woes

The headquarters of the Bank of Venezuela, from left, and buildings housing the National Assembly and various government ministries stand in darkness in Caracas on March 22. Venezuela shut down for a week to conserve electricity amid a deepening power crisis.

The headquarters of the Bank of Venezuela, from left, and buildings housing the National Assembly and various government ministries stand in darkness in Caracas on March 22. Venezuela shut down for a week to conserve electricity amid a deepening power crisis. Bloomberg/Bloomberg via Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption Bloomberg/Bloomberg via Getty Images

At the Caracas Paper Company, founded in 1953, printing presses and cutting machines used to churn out 13,000 tons of notebooks, manila folders and envelopes every year. Now, it produces less than half that amount.

That’s due to a paper shortage as well as frequent power outages. The blackouts can last up to three hours, says production manager Antonio Lamarca. And they come just as the government is urging Venezuelan businesses to ramp up production and help rescue the economy.

“The machinery shuts down. There’s no water, so the bathrooms don’t work. We have to send the workers home,” Lamarca says.

Some factories have adapted by installing diesel generators. But paper plant consultant Jose Sotelo says that a generator big enough to keep all these machines running would break the company’s budget.

Venezuela might seem like an odd place for an energy crisis. It’s home to the world’s largest oil reserves as well as huge natural gas deposits and massive rivers for hydroelectric dams.

But the El Nino weather effect has drastically reduced water levels at the country’s main hydroelectric complex. And so now, on top of food shortages and triple-digit inflation, people must put up with power outages. Venezuela’s government announced a week-long holiday last week to conserve electricity.

The government, which controls the electric system, accuses unnamed “enemies” — the political opposition — of allegedly attacking the country’s thermoelectric plants.

“We have to understand, this is a war,” Luis Motta, the minister of electricity, declared in an interview on state TV.

But independent analysts say government mismanagement and populist policies are to blame for the crisis. For example, Venezuelan households pay just pennies a month for electricity.

“For me, if I want to do my monthly budget, I don’t even care about electricity payment,” says Caracas-based economist Carlos Alvarez. “It is nothing.”

He says these rock-bottom rates starve the state electric company of money needed to upgrade the system. Now, with Venezuela’s economy in a free fall, the cash-strapped government has more pressing concerns, he says.

“I would say for now [the] priority is food, medicine,” Alvarez says. “People [are] dying because they don’t have the medicine that they need. People [are in] lines to get some food.”

Venezuela’s power outages — which have been happening on and off for about five years but became worse this year due to extremely low water levels in the main hydroelectric dam — are making daily life especially miserable. With no electricity, neighborhood water pumps stop working. To wash dishes and flush toilets, Elizabeth Castro, a nurse, stores water in buckets inside her apartment on the outskirts of Caracas.

The standing water provides a breeding ground for mosquitoes that spread malaria and Zika, a disease that has sickened Castro and several family members.

“What’s happening to us is really alarming,” Castro says.

But trying to escape from it all — for example, by taking in a movie — is also complicated. At a multiplex in a Caracas mall, the last showing of the movie Spotlight starts at 5:45 in the afternoon. Why so early? Due to power rationing, the shopping center closes at 7 p.m.

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How Strong Is Apple's iPhone Encryption? Not Strong Enough, Apparently

Browsing the news on an iPhone. (

The FBI’s ability to break into an iPhone without Apple’s assistance is raising questions about iPhone security. (

The Federal Bureau of Investigation said late Monday that it successfully broke into an encrypted iPhone used by San Bernardino killer Syed Rizwan Farook. An unnamed third party provided the workaround, which is said to have only worked on that phone.

Arik Hesseldahl of Re/code tells Here & Now’s Meghna Chakrabarti that while the hack means Apple does not need to help the FBI in this case, it is raising concerns about the strength of Apple’s encryption overall.


Read More Via Re/Code

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New Mix: Explosions In The Sky, Parquet Courts, Wire, Told Slant, More

Clockwise from upper left: Explosions In The Sky, Frankie Cosmos, Parquet Courts, Told Slant

Clockwise from upper left: Explosions In The Sky, Frankie Cosmos, Parquet Courts, Told Slant Courtesy of the artists hide caption

toggle caption Courtesy of the artists

On this week’s episode of All Songs Considered, Bob helps Robin Hilton out of his annual NCAA March Madness depression after his Jayhawks lose yet again. Bob plays a mind-obliterating track from Explosions In The Sky. Robin introduces us to new music from punk veterans Wire and a new song from Frankie Cosmos but they all seem to simply taunt his loss.

We also hear a magnificent new song from Told Slant that features Felix Walworth, the drummer for Eskimeaux, Florist and Bellows. Then there’s more explosive sounds from Parquet Courts and a new song by rhythmic sound effect master Walker Lukens. Robin closes out the show with a song by The Glands, one of his favorite bands from Athens, Ga. in tribute to lead singer Ross Shapiro, whose death was announced late last week.

Songs Featured On The Episode

Cover for The Wilderness
04Logic Of A Dream

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Explosions In The Sky

  • Song: Logic Of A Dream
  • from The Wilderness

Bob thinks that The Wilderness is the best marijuana record (his term) since Pink Floyd‘s Meddle. The magnificent sounding “Logic Of A Dream” takes you on a journey as the song builds on pulsating drums and great guitar lines.

The Wilderness is out April 1 on Temporary Residence Limited.

Wire, Nocturnal Koreans

Wire, Nocturnal Koreans Courtesy of the artist hide caption

toggle caption Courtesy of the artist

02Internal Exile

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  • Song: Internal Exile
  • from Nocturnal Koreans

Wire exploded onto the ’70s rock scene with its seminal album Pink Flag. Since then, the band has undergone constant variations of line-up and sound and its new record, Nocturnal Koreans, shows the band deep in studio experimentation.

Wire’s Nocturnal Koreans is out April 22 on pinkflag.

Cover for Human Performance

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Parquet Courts

  • Song: Dust
  • from Human Performance

Parquet Courts: great for existentialism and cleaning. Bob cranks music loud when he cleans his apartment, and Parquet Courts’ new music is perfect, cathartic music for the chore. The last 40 seconds of “Dust” build something like a compressed version of Explosions In The Sky and pack quite the sonic punch.

Parquet Court’s Human Performance is out April 8 on Rough Trade.

Cover for Lifted - Single

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Walker Lukens

  • Song: Lifted
  • from Lifted – Single

Walter Lukens does not beat box so much as use his voice to make rhythmic sound effects for his curious, textured music. The vocal intro to “Lifted” started as an iPhone voice memo. With the help of producer Jim Eno, Lukens built the entire song around that one vocal bit.

“Lifted” is the first single off of Tell It To The Judge, Lukens’ new album with his band The Side Arms, out later this year.

Cover for Going By
06Low Hymnal

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Told Slant

  • Song: Low Hymnal
  • from Going By

Felix Walworth, singer and drummer of Told Slant, is a three time veteran of the Tiny Desk after performing with Bellows, Eskimeaux and Florist. Told Slant makes dark, delicate indie rock in the same vein. Felix wrote the music for “Low Hymnal” as just a tune that remained unfinished with for about a year before the lyrics arrived quickly following a series of personal crises. “Did I invite disillusionment and self-hatred into my life when I started writing about them?” Felix says. “Probably.”

Told Slant’s Going By is out June 17 on Double Double Whammy.

Cover for Next Thing

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Frankie Cosmos

  • Song: Fool
  • from Next Thing

Frankie Cosmos, led by singer Greta Kline, makes wonderfully light, breezy, sweet songs that are just delightful. “Fool” is a song, according to Kline, “all about the times you put yourself out there and you feel like you failed.”

Frankie Cosmos Next Thing is out April 1 on Bayonet Records.

The Glands, The Glands

The Glands, The Glands Courtesy of the artist hide caption

toggle caption Courtesy of the artist

08I Can See My House from Here

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The Glands

  • Song: I Can See My House from Here

There was a period in the late 1990s when Athens, Ga. bands were at a peak of collective, creative output. Neutral Milk Hotel released In the Aeroplane Over the Sea and bands like The Gerbils, The Olivia Tremor Control and The Glands all released seminal albums. Most of the bands went dormant after that time, but the music stands the test of time. The recent passing of Ross Shapiro, the lead singer of The Glands, comes especially hard — The Glands announced last year that the group was recording new music. We don’t know what will become of that project, but, in the meantime: This one is for The Glands.

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