Muslim and civil rights groups and their supporters gather at a rally against what they call a “Muslim ban” in Washington in October.
Manuel Balce Ceneta/AP
Manuel Balce Ceneta/AP
A federal appeals court in California has ruled that the Trump administration’s long-delayed travel ban can go into partial effect, allowing the government to temporarily keep travelers from six Muslim-majority countries from entering the United States.
A three-judge panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit puts on hold a lower court ruling last month that blocked the administration’s ban against travelers from Syria, Iran, Libya, Yemen, Somalia, and Chad.
The appellate panel, all Clinton appointees, ruled that a preliminary injunction issued by District Judge Derrick Watson in Honolulu may not go into full effect. But it would allow “foreign nationals who have a credible claim of a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States.” The panel said that would include “grandparents, grandchildren, brothers-in-law, sisters-in-law, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, and cousins.”
Judge Watson’s ruling came in response to a challenge filed by the state of Hawaii. Neither the appellate nor the lower court rulings affect travelers from North Korea and Venezuela. In his preliminary injunction, Watson did not include people from those two countries.
In a statement, Hawaii Attorney General Douglas Chin said, “Today’s decision today closely tracks guidance previously issued by the Supreme Court. I’m pleased that family ties to the U. S., including grandparents, will be respected.”
A spokesperson for the Department of Justice, Lauren Ehrsam, said, “We are reviewing the court’s order and the government will begin enforcing the travel proclamation consistent with the partial stay. We believe that the proclamation should be allowed to take effect in its entirety.”
This latest legal development tests whether Trump Travel Ban 3.0 will withstand judicial scrutiny. The first was blocked by the courts and the second expired before it could win court approval.
There is a parallel case winding through the federal court in Maryland where a judge also blocked Trump’s travel ban in mid-October. U.S. District Judge Theodore D. Chuang’s order was less sweeping, although it also favored travelers with a “bona fide” relationship with a person or entity in the United States.
As the Two-Way reported, “In his ruling, Chuang wrote that President Trump’s own tweets helped convince him that the latest policy is an ‘inextricable re-animation of the twice-enjoined Muslim ban’ that Trump called for on the campaign trail and is therefore likely to be found unconstitutional.”
An appeal of that ruling will be heard by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit on December 8.
The 9th Circuit Appeals Court will reexamine the case on December 6.
As the Washington Post points out, in order to survive, the travel ban would need a green light from both appeals courts.
Gloria Single and her husband Bill Single in the dining hall of the skilled nursing floor at Pioneer House, Sacramento. AARP Foundation attorneys say California needs to more tightly enforce laws that prohibit evictions of the sort that separated the Singles, and sped up her physical decline.
A California judge could decide Tuesday if Gloria Single will be reunited with her husband, Bill. She’s 83 years old. He’s 93. The two have been married for 30 years. They lived in the same nursing home until last March, when Gloria Single was evicted without warning.
Her situation isn’t unique. Nationwide, eviction is the leading complaint about nursing homes. In California last year, more than 1,500 nursing home residents complained that they were discharged involuntarily. That’s an increase of 73 percent since 2011.
Gloria Single has a number of ailments. One of them is Alzheimer’s disease. So when her son Aubrey Jones comes to visit her in her new nursing home, he brings old photos to show her. She can still recognize faces from long ago — one picture shows her three sons when they were just little kids.
Jones says the photograph makes him and his brothers look like real troublemakers. “You are troublemakers,” his mom teases.
Jones also shows his mother a more recent photo. It was taken at Pioneer House, the nursing home where Gloria Single and her husband Bill lived together before her eviction. They’re gazing into each other’s eyes and smiling.
When Jones tells her he loves that photo, Gloria Single slyly replies that’s “because [Bill’s] got his hand on my knee.”
In court documents, Pioneer House paints a more troubling picture of Gloria Single. They say that she became aggressive with staff and threw some plastic tableware. So Pioneer House called an ambulance and sent her to a hospital for a psychological evaluation. The hospital found nothing wrong with her, but the nursing home wouldn’t take her back. They said they couldn’t care for someone with her needs.
Jones protested his mother’s eviction to the California Department of Health Care Services. The department held a hearing. Jones won.
“I expected action — definitely expected action,” says Jones.
Instead, he got an email explaining that the department that holds the hearings has no authority to enforce its own rulings. Enforcement is handled by a different state agency. He could start over with them.
This Catch-22 situation attracted the interest of the legal wing of the AARP Foundation. Last year, attorneys there asked the federal government to open a civil rights investigation into the way California deals with nursing home evictions. Now, they’re suing Pioneer House and its parent company on Gloria Single’s behalf. It’s the first time the AARP has taken a legal case dealing with nursing home eviction.
“We certainly hope we can get Mrs. Single some relief,” says William Alvarado Rivera, the foundation’s senior vice president for litigation. “But we also hope that there is a lesson to be learned by facilities — that there will be accountability for their failure to respect the due process rights of their residents.”
Nursing home residents have a lot of rights guaranteed in state and federal law. For example, they have to be given 30 days’ notice before they’re moved involuntarily. And the nursing home has to hold their bed for a week if they’re in the hospital.
Rivera says Gloria Single didn’t get any of that. As a result, she was stuck in the hospital for four and a half months before being accepted by another facility. During that time Single received none of the services and activities she would have had in a nursing home. She lost her ability to walk and now relies on a wheelchair.
Rivera says that “in the absence of state enforcement, it will depend on individuals like Mrs. Single having to advocate for themselves to get their rights respected and enforced.”
Fourteen years of public records obtained by NPR show that nursing homes rarely pay a price for illegally evicting residents. Just 7 percent of nursing homes that were found to have violated the law in California were fined by the state. With just a couple of exceptions, the highest fines assessed were $2,000. The majority were $1,000 or less — and most fines were never paid in full.
Diana Dooley, California’s secretary of health and human services, declined NPR’s request for an interview, citing pending litigation against the state on a similar issue.
Frustration with the lack of state enforcement led the California Long-Term Care Ombudsman Association to join the Single lawsuit as a co-plaintiff. The organization represents long-term-care ombudsmen. Those are the public officials who track complaints about nursing homes and advocate for residents. But Leza Coleman, the group’s executive director, says the spike in complaints about evictions is so overwhelming, that it’s “impacting our ability to handle other complaints.”
Coleman believes another reason that eviction complaints are going up, is that the number of nursing homes is going down. State records show there are about 2,300 fewer beds in California than there were six years ago.
“Those residents that are more challenging — those that have to be repositioned often, those that don’t want to sit quietly and watch television — … they’re more expensive,” she says. “They can be very taxing on the staff of a facility, and if a facility has one bed and two people looking at it, they’re going to take the person that’s easier to care for.”
But eviction complaints need to be seen in a different context, says Jim Gomez, CEO of the California Association of Health Facilities. “We have a very low rate of complaints regarding discharge,” he says, adding that roughly 1,500 complaints is “less than a half of 1 percent of some 300,000 discharges” a year.
And when residents are involuntarily discharged, Gomez says, “it’s for the safety of staff and other residents.
“We’ve had many attacks on residents and staff,” he says. “Are you going to allow that person back to the facility?”
Pioneer House and its parent corporation, the Retirement Housing Foundation, declined to be interviewed for this story. They sent a written statement which says, in part, “We intend to vigorously defend the allegation set forth in the lawsuit.”
Meanwhile, Aubrey Jones says the lawsuit is not just about his mother any more.
“If anything,” he says, “I want the dial to be turned a little bit so this thing doesn’t happen again —[so] it’s less likely to happen to someone else.”
Most of all, Jones says, he wants to see his mother and stepfather reunited, so they can be together for the little bit of time they have left.
For three years in a row, the world’s carbon emissions were virtually stable — holding steady after decades of growth.
But now they’re on the rise again, which is bad news for efforts to fight climate change, according to a team of researchers who have released a new study on the topic.
Seventy-six scientists from around the world contributed to the Global Carbon Project, or GCP, which released its annual “Carbon Budget” on Monday.
The budget estimates that total global carbon emissions from fossil fuels and industrial sources will rise by 2 percent in 2017. There’s a fair amount of uncertainty in that projection, with possible values from .8 percent to 3 percent — but the researchers are confident it represents an overall rise, fueled in part by changes in the Chinese economy.
The anticipated change is a “big rise,” lead author Corinne Le Quéré tells NPR. “And this is contrary to what is needed in order to tackle climate change.”
It’s a shift from the more hopeful findings from the last few years. From 2014 to 2016, according to the GCP analysis, the rate of emissions was basically flat.
“The slowdown in emissions growth from 2014 to 2016 was always a delicate balance, and the likely 2% increase in 2017 clearly demonstrates that we can’t take the recent slowdown for granted,”said Robbie Andrew, a senior researcher at CICERO Center for International Climate Research in Oslo and a co-author of the studies, said in a press release.
Scientists agree that a reduction in carbon emissions is necessary to keep the global warming at 2 degrees Celsius or less, the target established by the global accord on climate change (which President Trump intends to withdraw from). That level of climate change is still projected to have a range of damaging effects, including devastation for some island nations — but it will be far from the worse-case scenario projected if emissions continue to rise.
The increase in carbon emissions is not distributed evenly around the world.
The U.S. and the countries of the European Union, which once generated nearly all of the world’s fossil-fuel and industrial carbon emissions, now contribute less than half of the world’s cumulative emissions. Their contributions are expected to continue to fall in 2017, albeit at a lower rate than they had previously been falling.
Emissions from China, India and the rest of the world, however, are projected to show marked increase in 2017.
The result is “an emissions tug-of-war,” as the CICERO Center for International Climate Research put it in a press release.
That makes it hard to tell what’s going to happen next, because the trend is “so fragile,” as Le Quéré told NPR on Monday.
“It’s the difference between emissions rising in parts of the world and decreasing in other parts of the world,” she says. Overall? “Frankly, it could really go either way.”
And it’s crucial for that upward trend to start moving down, and quickly, she says. She points to already-evident consequences of global warming: warmer oceans that can fuel more powerful storms and rising sea levels that cause more devastating coastal surge damage.
“In order to tackle climate change emissions you have to go down to almost zero” emissions, she says. “The faster we do it, the more we limit the risks from climate change.”
Six of the study’s authors co-wrote an article about their findings in The Conversation; you can read it here.
Penn State’s shuttered Beta Theta Pi fraternity house, seen last week in State College, Pa.
Gene J. Puskar/AP
Gene J. Puskar/AP
Prosecutors have filed new charges against members of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity at Penn State, alleging that newly recovered video shows them serving pledge Timothy Piazza excessive quantities of alcohol. The charges filed Monday — which range from involuntary manslaughter to aggravated assault and hazing — rely on surveillance footage taken during the pledge event connected with the 19-year-old’s death.
Piazza received “at least 18 drinks in over 1 hour and 22 minutes,” Centre County District Attorney Stacy Parks Miller said at a news conference Monday, and he “never once obtained any of those drinks for himself. Brothers [in the fraternity] were coming up to him and giving him those drinks.”
That same night after the February event, Piazza would drunkenly fall down the stairs and sustain the injuries that led to his death less than two days later.
“When law enforcement initially evaluated the video footage, fraternity brothers led police to believe that the basement cameras had been inoperable on Bid Acceptance Night,” Parks Miller’s office said in a statement. “However, after later examining one of the DVR surveillance boxes, State College Police uncovered evidence that the basement camera footage had actually been manually deleted just as State College Police were poised to take possession of the recording equipment.”
“State College Police sent the box to the FBI, whose agents were able to restore the video from the deleted hard drive,” the district attorney’s office added.
Prosecutors filed charges against 12 members of the fraternity and added to the already-existing charges against five others. “In all,” The Philadelphia Inquirer reports, “25 Beta Theta Pi members now face charges.”
The new allegations mark a significant escalation in a case that has taken several twists since the Dauphin County coroner initially ruled Piazza’s death an accident. In May, a grand jury revised that assessment, calling it “the direct result of encouraged reckless conduct.” As NPR’s Bill Chappell reported at the time, charges were pressed against 18 members of the fraternity, including eight who were charged with involuntary manslaughter.
The grand jury document referenced other surveillance footage than the video recovered recently. That previous footage allegedly depicted Piazza, severely under the influence, falling head-first down the stairs at about 11 p.m. and falling again around 5 a.m., hitting his head against a metal railing. At various points in the time between, fraternity brothers allegedly slapped Piazza several times in the face and stomach.
It would be nearly another six hours before an ambulance was called for Piazza, who ultimately died with traumatic brain injuries and a ruptured spleen.
Yet the prosecutors’ case has not progressed evenly since May, as the accused have said Parks Miller is overreaching with her allegations. The Inquirer explains:
“In September, Judge Allen Sinclair gutted the prosecution’s case, throwing out the most serious felony charges against the fraternity members and saying prosecutors had not presented enough evidence to support them.
“Parks Miller has vowed to push forward with the case and refiled those felony counts last month.
“She has asked that the case be reassigned to another judge, but she is working against the clock. She lost a primary election in the spring and is set to leave office in January. Her successor – Bernie Cantorna — has not said whether or not he intends to proceed with the prosecution.”
At the news conference Monday, Piazza’s father said he is committed to pursuing the charges against the members of the fraternity, which has been shut down by Penn State. The school has also changed the way it regulates fraternities and sororities, assuming more control over disciplinary procedures.
Timothy Piazza “was a happy and caring human being” who “was killed at the hands of those he was seeking friendship from,” his father said, according to ABC News.
“The visions of him lying in a hospital bed battered and bruised and on life support … make no sense. He was just trying to join an organization.”
Church of England guidance for schools encourages a “loving and hospitable community [where] pupils can explore their identity without fear of harm, judgement or being ostracized.”
Rawpixel Ltd/Getty Images/iStockphoto
Rawpixel Ltd/Getty Images/iStockphoto
The Church of England is advising teachers to allow and encourage children to explore their gender identity.
In guidance issued Sunday the Church’s education office told its almost 5,000 schools to allow students “to be able to play with the many cloaks of identity.”
“Every one of us is loved unconditionally by God. We must avoid at all costs, diminishing the dignity of any individual to a stereotype or a problem,” said Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby in a forward to the guidance.
1. Our new guidance to help Church schools tackle homophobic, biphobic and transphobic bullying is about making all our 5K brilliant schools safe places to grow up. #AntiBullyingWeekhttps://t.co/ZmsthuJVqd
— Justin Welby ن (@JustinWelby) November 13, 2017
The 52-page document Valuing All God’s Children outlines 10 recommendations for schools such as training for faculty and staff so they are ready to offer pastoral support for students who experience homophobic, biphobic and transphobic bullying as well as writing curricula that “offer opportunities for pupils to learn to value themselves and their bodies.”
Teachers are also advised to learn how to properly identify and document bullying behavior.
In addition to the concrete guidance, the document goes out of its way to highlight “primary and secondary schools as places where students can explore their identity in any form it takes.”
“Children should be at liberty to explore the possibilities of who they might be without judgement or derision. For example, a child may choose the tutu, princess’s tiara and heels and/or the firefighter’s helmet, tool belt and superhero cloak without expectation or comment. Childhood has a sacred space for creative self-imagining,” one passage reads.
LGBT leaders applauded the decision. The Guardian reports:
“The guidance met with outrage in some quarters, drawing [skeptical] newspaper headlines and furious commentary from some conservatives. But the human rights campaigner Peter Tatchell said the guidance was ‘big progress for a church that traditionally and historically has been hostile to LGBT rights.’
” ‘The new guidance is positive,’ Tatchell said. ‘It affirms diverse sexual orientations and gender identities, supporting pupils who are different. It acknowledges their right to explore, experiment and express without denigration.’ “
The newspaper does go on to report that detractors include conservative Christian groups and television personality and journalist Piers Morgan.
“I’ve got a six-year-old girl, she doesn’t know what gender identity is, yet teachers are now asking a five-year-old child: ‘How are you feeling today? Do you feel male or female?'” Morgan said, according to The Guardian.
The guidance references findings from an LGBT rights group Stonewall and its School Reportwhich surveyed more than 3,700 LGBT students across Britain about their interactions at school with peers and teachers.
The report found that while reports of overall bullying against LGBT students have gone down since 2007, it was still present in the experience of some students. Seven in 10 surveyed students reported that their schools have openly stated the homophobic and biphobic bullying is wrong. Four in 10 said their schools come out against transphobic behavior.
“All bullying has a profoundly negative impact on children, and it is never acceptable,” a Stonewall spokesperson told The Guardian.
A “comfort woman” statue is placed on a bus seat to mark the 5th International Memorial Day for Comfort Women in Seoul in August.
One goal of President Trump’s trip to Asia has been to rally America’s allies to help put pressure on North Korea. But the mission is complicated by the fact that America’s two staunchest allies in East Asia — Japan and South Korea — don’t get along well when it comes to issues involving their history.
Much of the friction dates back to Japan’s occupation of Korea in the first part of the 20th century. Tensions related to that occupation still simmer — even 70 years after South Korea was liberated.
Things flared up again this year over a statue of a young girl known as the “Peace Statue.”
The small bronze figure depicts a girl sitting in a chair, staring straight ahead with a look of determination. She has cropped hair and wears a hanbok — a traditional Korean dress. She’s barefoot. Her fist is clenched. Next to her is an empty chair.
The girl memorializes women like Ahn Jeom-sun. She’s now 89 and says she has visited the statue often. It symbolizes the youth she lost at age 13, when the Japanese Imperial Army abducted her from her village.
“What I remember is that I was forcibly taken out of Korea and taken to China,” Ahn says.
The United Nations estimates 200,000 girls and women — mostly Koreans — were seized from villages to join Japan’s military sexual slavery program before and during the Second World War.
“What can I say? They did all the stuff that they wanted to do according to their desires, or according to what they wanted. This was all forced. What could we possibly do?” Ahn says.
She and the others came to be known as “comfort women.” They served at temporary brothels near the front lines — often tents or wooden shacks surrounded by barbed wire — and were forced to have sex with as many as 70 men per day.
A statue of a teenage girl — the original monument to former “comfort women” who served as sex slaves for Japanese soldiers during World War II — sits in front of the Japanese embassy in Seoul.
Jung Yeon-Je/AFP/Getty Images
Jung Yeon-Je/AFP/Getty Images
“If we didn’t obey to what they wanted us to do, they would hit us and they would do anything that they wanted to do to us. What could we possibly do more to that, besides just wait until Korea was liberated?” Ahn says.
The practice ended in 1945, with the end of the war. Ahn is one of a few dozen comfort women still alive.
Koreans feel the pain of what happened to these women so deeply that Korean populations in the diaspora have put up replicas of the statue in places as far-flung as New Jersey, California, Australia and Germany.
In South Korea, they’re in about 50 different parks and public spaces. But Japan wants these statues to come down. Some in the country’s ruling party have questioned whether the war-era imperial government was really involved in the sex slave program — or they contend the women volunteered.
The Japanese government declined NPR’s request for an interview, citing scheduling conflicts.
A few years ago, Japan and South Korea struck a landmark deal regarding the comfort women. It required Japan to compensate victims and “issue a statement of regret.” In return, South Korea would remove the first of these bronze girls, which went up in 2011 in front of the Japanese embassy in Seoul.
But Korean citizens and activists never accepted the deal. They keep putting more statues up. One angered the Japanese government so much that in January, it recalled its ambassador from Seoul for a few months.
The latest memorial is showing up on the seats of South Korean city buses. The figure shows the same short-haired, seated girl, with her hands clenched in her lap. Instead of bronze, the statue is painted — black hair, light skin, wearing a dress.
It makes for some surprises.
“I wasn’t scared, I wasn’t shocked, but I was like, what is this? I saw it on TV a couple of times but I’m seeing it for the first time in real life,” says bus rider Yoon Sung-Lim.
For the activists installing these statues, the idea is to keep the issue alive now that the victims are growing older and dying.
“By having these statues, we’ll have high school students and younger generations be curious what the meaning is behind these statues, ask their older generations and ask their parents or their friends what this means, and actually receive a proper explanation and know what happened,” says Kim Hyang-mi, who led the effort to get the statues on the city of Suwon’s buses.
In Seoul, the seated statue rolls around on bus No. 151 — which stops right in front of the Japanese embassy. The girl is visible every time the bus doors open.
The statue memorializing South Korea’s comfort women was placed in front of the Japanese embassy in Seoul in 2011.
Woohae Cho/Getty Images
Woohae Cho/Getty Images
“This is a victim among us. And you’re sort of confronted when you step aboard the bus, you don’t know which bus it’s going to be, but here she is and it could be any of us,” says Alexis Dudden, a professor of Japanese history at the University of Connecticut. “I think as long as this particular administration in Japan seeks to discredit and shred the dignity of the survivors of this crime against humanity, absolutely, put it right on their front doorstep.”
Dudden points out that while the U.S. and other countries debate whether to take down monuments to participants in or perpetrators of war, Japan is doing something different.
“It remains only Japan that is seeking to remove a statue of a victim. Politically speaking, there’s just no winning in that,” Dudden says.
Ahn Jeom-sum, the former sex slave, says she never got married or had children after what happened to her during the war. She didn’t start speaking out about her story until the 1990s. She says she doesn’t want compensation from Japan.
“At this point, we don’t really care about the money, we don’t really care about politics. We just want a proper apology from them directly to us. We want them to think about us, the actual people that were involved,” she says.
And she wants the statues to stay.
NPR producer Becky Sullivan and journalist Jihye Lee contributed to this story.
Radhika Jones, then deputy managing editor of Time, seen at a 2014 gala thrown by the magazine in New York City.
Larry Busacca/Getty Images for TIME
Larry Busacca/Getty Images for TIME
Vanity Fair has named Radhika Jones as its new editor-in-chief. Condé Nast, the magazine’s parent company, announced the surprise selection Monday.
“Radhika is an exceptionally talented editor who has the experience and insight to drive the cultural conversation—balancing distinctive journalism with culture and humor,” Bob Sauerberg, president and CEO of Condé Nast, said in a statement.
“Her experience covering news and entertainment has given her a thorough understanding of the importance of chronicling and celebrating the moments that matter. With her expansive worldview, I know she will guide Vanity Fair’s history of provocative and enduring storytelling well into its future.”
I’m honored and excited to succeed Graydon Carter as editor in chief of @VanityFair.
— Radhika Jones (@radhikajones) November 13, 2017
Jones, former deputy managing editor of Time magazine and current editorial director of the books department at The New York Times, will officially step into her new role on Dec. 11.
The 44-year-old editor is likely to offer a shift in perspective for the New York City-based publication. Graydon Carter, who steered the magazine for a quarter-century, stepped down at age 68 from his longtime perch in September.
At the time, NPR’s David Folkenflik reflected on Carter’s tenure at Vanity Fair, which “published some of the most accomplished magazine writers in the country, chronicling the worlds of finance, politics, fashion, media, and culture”:
“Above all, however, Carter’s Vanity Fair has paid attention and, at times, fealty, to celebrity. He perfected a formula for covering the famous and soon-to-be-more-famous that somehow knit together (or alternated between) reverence and exposé, complicity and accountability. Marilyn Monroe, the Kennedys and the British royals were all reliable standbys. An Annie Leibovitz photo treatment in Vanity Fair was a desperately coveted prize by many of the people the magazine covered.”
Jones’ current employer, The New York Times, expects that her looming tenure could make for a marked change in tone at Vanity Fair.
“Unlike Mr. Carter, a co-founder of the satirical Spy magazine who went on to become an establishment fixture and gatekeeper, Ms. Jones is hardly the gallivanting celebrity editor many media observers assumed would end up as his successor,” the paper notes.
“Whip-smart and unassuming, with meticulous handwriting and an erstwhile fondness for Tetris, Ms. Jones seems suited to a new era — of transformation but also of restraint — at Vanity Fair and Condé Nast.”
Condé Nast has been undergoing transformations of a less positive sort recently. Grappling with diminishing revenues, the publishing giant has embarked on a round of layoffs at some of its most recognizable publications, including GQ.
So: Yesterday GQ laid me off, alongside a slew of extremely talented others. Still not the worst Nov. 9 of my life, somehow?! But a sad one nonetheless.
Anyway, if you need a writer/editor (and don’t mind working with a chronic midnight emailer), hit me up.
Also wow 280 rules
— Ashley Fetters (@AshleyFetters) November 10, 2017
But Anna Wintour, the publisher’s artistic director and editor-in-chief of Vogue, expressed hope that Jones will offer a positive direction forward.
“In Radhika, we are so proud to have a fearless and brilliant editor whose intelligence and curiosity will define the future of Vanity Fair in the years to come.”
As for what, exactly, that future will look like — well, it appears readers will have to just wait and see.
“I need to get oriented first — there’s a lot to take in,” Jones told the Times. “I’m just really interested in discovery.”