Macron, Le Pen Expected To Advance To French Presidential Runoff

Ballots are prepared for counting at a polling station in Rouen, northern France, during the first round of the French presidential elections, on April 23, 2017.

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Charly Triballeau/AFP/Getty Images

Emmanuel Macron, a centrist politician who’s never held elective office, and Marine Le Pen, the far-right, firebrand who wants to take France out of the European Union, are expected to advance to next month’s run-off for the presidency of the country, according to projections based on early vote counts.

French presidential election candidate for the En Marche ! movement Emmanuel Macron (L) stands next to his wife, Brigitte Trogneux as he casts his ballot at a polling station in Le Touquet, northern France, on April 23, 2017, during the first round of the Presidential election.

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Philippe Wojazer/AFP/Getty Images

Macron was estimated to have won 23.7 percent of the vote with Le Pen taking about 21.7 percent. Francois Fillon, the only establishment candidate among the front-runners, appeared tied for third place with left-wing politician Jean-Luc Melenchon with about 19.5 percent of the vote each.

If the projections hold up, which are traditionally seen as reliable, it will set up a battle in May between two politicians with not only completely different visions for France but – more significantly – utterly different views of one of the biggest issues facing many voters in the West today: globalization.

National Front Leader Marine Le Pen, casts her vote for the French elections in a polling station on April 23, 2017 in Henin Beaumont, France.

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Macron is a liberal, former investment banker and an avowed internationalist who worked as economic minister in France’s Socialist government. Le Pen has run a tough, anti-immigrant campaign and has vowed to take France out of the European Union. The United Kingdom is already in the process of pulling out of the 28-national trading bloc. Were France to also head for the door, most analysts think it would kill an institution that helped keep the peace and bind Europe together for decades.

Many analysts here say that because of her far-right policies, Le Pen cannot beat Macron in a head-to-head, national race. She now appears headed for an opportunity to prove the pundits wrong in two weeks when the two compete in the run-off.

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'I Dreamed of Africa' Author And Conservationist, Shot In Kenya

Conservationist Kuki Gallmann speaks at the launch of World Migratory Bird Day, in April 2006. Gallmann was shot in the stomach Sunday while surveying arson damage to her property.

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TONY KARUMBA/AFP/Getty Images

Kuki Gallmann, a conservationist best known for her book I Dreamed of Africa, was ambushed and shot while she drove across her conservancy in Kenya Sunday morning.

Gallmann, 73, was shot in the stomach and “severely injured” while surveying her property with rangers of the Kenya Wildlife Service, according to her brother-in-law Nigel Adams and a press release from a farmers’ association of which she’s a member.

She was flown to a hospital in Nairobi for treatment, and was still conscious and speaking after the attack, according to The New York Times.

Her conservancy, the Laikipia Nature Conservancy, has been the center of a bloody battle for weeks, as a large-scale drought has pushed cattle-herders to extreme measures to try and find grazing land.

NPR’s Eyder Peralta spoke on All Things Considered earlier this month about the issue, after the owner of another ranch was shot and killed.

“You have nomadic herders who are moving into private wildlife conservancies with thousands of heads of cattle,” Peralta said. “And in response, the Kenyan government launched a military-style operation to push the herders out. But what we’ve seen is an escalation of violence. Police have killed lots of cows. And the herders have responded by burning tourist lodges on the properties.”

In fact, Gallmann was said to be surveying arson damage inflicted on her property, when she was attacked.

Members of the Pokot and Samburu tribes have long grazed on conservancy land in Kenya, but over the past few years things have changed. Herders have brought more and more cows, killed other wildlife, and begun to vandalize property. Gallmann’s daughter, Sveva Gallmann, told NPR last month that the escalation concerned her.

“That’s not just grass,” she said. “That is heavily politicized violence. And that is what’s much more worrying about this situation.”

She added that she doesn’t think the herders even own many of the cows.

“There’s a lot of, actually, politicians, people within the police, people within the administration storing their wealth in cattle and laundering ill-gotten money through cattle,” she said.

Government officials deny those claims.

Kenya has a national election coming up in August, and local land owners also blame politicians for inciting herders to push their cattle onto privately-owned land as a way of boosting their popularity, reports the United Kingdom’s The Telegraph.

In an interview with NPR Sunday, Martin Evans, the chair of the Laikipia Farmers’ Association, agreed that the battle between the herders and the Kenya Defense forces is politically motivated.

“It started a year ago,” Evans said. “At the time it started, there was plenty of rain, it was nothing to do with lack of grass at that time so yes, I think it’s definitely being pushed by politicians.”

Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta’s office issued a statement warning politicians in the area not to inflame the situation with “reckless rhetoric.”

“Politicians encouraging invasions of privately-owned property or attacks on individuals can expect strong deterrent action in terms of the law,” Kenyatta’s spokesman, Manoah Esipisu, said.

In the last month, the violence seemed to be escalating on the Gallmann ranch. Herders burned down a famous resort on her property, and she exchanged text messages last week with The New York Timesthat showed her concern.

“Pokot militia openly carrying firearms,” Gallmann wrote on April 15. “Not just herders. Group of armed men without livestock. 13 firearm spotted.”

Gallmann was born in Italy, and published her memoir I Dreamed of Kenya in 1991. It was turned into a movie starring Kim Basinger in 2000.

NPR’s Eyder Peralta contributed to this report.

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'I Dreamed of Africa' Author And Conservationist, Shot In Kenya

Conservationist Kuki Gallmann speaks at the launch of World Migratory Bird Day, in April 2006. Gallmann was shot in the stomach Sunday while surveying arson damage to her property.

TONY KARUMBA/AFP/Getty Images

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TONY KARUMBA/AFP/Getty Images

Kuki Gallmann, a conservationist best known for her book I Dreamed of Africa, was ambushed and shot while she drove across her conservancy in Kenya Sunday morning.

Gallmann, 73, was shot in the stomach and “severely injured” while surveying her property with rangers of the Kenya Wildlife Service, according to her brother-in-law Nigel Adams and a press release from a farmers’ association of which she’s a member.

She was flown to a hospital in Nairobi for treatment, and was still conscious and speaking after the attack, according to The New York Times.

Her conservancy, the Laikipia Nature Conservancy, has been the center of a bloody battle for weeks, as a large-scale drought has pushed cattle-herders to extreme measures to try and find grazing land.

NPR’s Eyder Peralta spoke on All Things Considered earlier this month about the issue, after the owner of another ranch was shot and killed.

“You have nomadic herders who are moving into private wildlife conservancies with thousands of heads of cattle,” Peralta said. “And in response, the Kenyan government launched a military-style operation to push the herders out. But what we’ve seen is an escalation of violence. Police have killed lots of cows. And the herders have responded by burning tourist lodges on the properties.”

In fact, Gallmann was said to be surveying arson damage inflicted on her property, when she was attacked.

Members of the Pokot and Samburu tribes have long grazed on conservancy land in Kenya, but over the past few years things have changed. Herders have brought more and more cows, killed other wildlife, and begun to vandalize property. Gallmann’s daughter, Sveva Gallmann, told NPR last month that the escalation concerned her.

“That’s not just grass,” she said. “That is heavily politicized violence. And that is what’s much more worrying about this situation.”

She added that she doesn’t think the herders even own many of the cows.

“There’s a lot of, actually, politicians, people within the police, people within the administration storing their wealth in cattle and laundering ill-gotten money through cattle,” she said.

Government officials deny those claims.

Kenya has a national election coming up in August, and local land owners also blame politicians for inciting herders to push their cattle onto privately-owned land as a way of boosting their popularity, reports the United Kingdom’s The Telegraph.

In an interview with NPR Sunday, Martin Evans, the chair of the Laikipia Farmers’ Association, agreed that the battle between the herders and the Kenya Defense forces is politically motivated.

“It started a year ago,” Evans said. “At the time it started, there was plenty of rain, it was nothing to do with lack of grass at that time so yes, I think it’s definitely being pushed by politicians.”

Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta’s office issued a statement warning politicians in the area not to inflame the situation with “reckless rhetoric.”

“Politicians encouraging invasions of privately-owned property or attacks on individuals can expect strong deterrent action in terms of the law,” Kenyatta’s spokesman, Mamoah Esipisu, said.

In the last month, the violence seemed to be escalating on the Gallmann ranch. Herders burned down a famous resort on her property, and she exchanged text messages last week with The New York Timesthat showed her concern.

“Pokot militia openly carrying firearms,” Gallmann wrote on April 15. “Not just herders. Group of armed men without livestock. 13 firearm spotted.”

Gallmann was born in Italy, and published her memoir I Dreamed of Kenya in 1991. It was turned into a movie starring Kim Basinger in 2000.

NPR’s Eyder Peralta contributed to this report.

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An Opening For Trump In Deep Blue Oregon

Workers watch as wooden boards move across a wood planer inside Seneca Sawmill Company in Eugene, Ore. It sits in the state’s 4th congressional district — which Donald Trump almost won.

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At Seneca Sawmill Company in Eugene, Ore., a team of lumbermen stand watch as wooden boards are spit out one-by-one onto a planing platform.

“We’re taking rough lumber from the saw mill, bringing it over and putting a smooth surface on all four sides and then grading it based on lumber grading rules,” explains Todd Payne, Seneca’s CEO.

Payne says his business is thriving. A “now hiring” sign even hangs out front. Seneca Sawmill has weathered the past few decades better than many of Oregon’s other timber operations.

The region’s logging industry says it has struggled under the cumulative weight of a tough economy, unfavorable trade deals, job-stealing automation and environmental regulations that have restricted the supply of timber from federal lands.

‘The Industry Is Very Much Diminished’

“This used to be the largest public timber-producing district in the United States of America. The industry is very much diminished in terms of relying on public land. The industry is very much diminished in terms of number of people of working,” says Rep. Pete DeFazio, D-Ore., who has watched mill after mill close over the three decades that he’s represented this part of southwest Oregon in the House.

That downturn has affected the way people connected to the timber industry feel about their communities and themselves.

In May 2016, then-Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump capitalized on the combustible mix of timber and politics during a campaign stop in Eugene. He promised to help revitalize the state’s timber industry.

Trump didn’t offer specifics about how he do it, but Valerie West — a Trump supporter who lives in rural Roseburg, Ore. — says she liked what she heard then and believes Trump can deliver.

“I really think he can,” she says. “I really think he will bring it back.”

Roseburg sits about an hour south of Eugene. The once bustling town was known as the “Timber Capitol of the Nation.”

Valerie says her husband used to worked for a lumber mill in Roseburg before he was deployed to Iraq, where he was injured and disabled. Valerie now collects disability.

Times were different, she recalls, when her husband had that timber job.

“We were making pretty good money. We were able to buy a house and live comfortably,” she says.

That’s part of what nearly delivered this district to Trump in November. In 2012, Oregon’s 4th district voted overwhelmingly to reelect former President Barack Obama. But in 2016, only 554 votes separated Donald Trump from Hillary Clinton, according to a count by the Daily Kos.

That outcome and Trump’s national victory didn’t come as a surprise to Rep. DeFazio.

Trump’s Targeted Timber Message

“I predicted a long time ago Trump was going to win because I look at my district as a microcosm of America. I could see it,” the Democrat says.

DeFazio saw Trump’s targeted timber message as effective and shrewd at the time, given the protracted push and pull over natural resources between conservationists and logging interests.

Both sides, he says, are bitterly divided at the extremes.

“You know, I’m a strong environmentalist,” says De Fazio, “But I’ve been called a ‘timber beast’ by enviros in my district because I’m not going to say like they do ‘Never ever cut another tree!’ and ‘Build houses out of hemp!'”

Back at Seneca Sawmill Company, CEO Todd Payne says more logging on federally owned public lands would help.

“A lot of our land base is owned by the federal government,” Payne says, “and there’s hope that we can get back to a balanced approach in managing those lands both for timber production and environmental protection and everything in between.”

But Doug Heiken with the conservation group Oregon Wild says they’re more valuable when protected.

“These forests provide clean drinking water,” says Heiken. “They provide habitat for endangered species that were trying to recover. They provide great recreation opportunities for people that want to, you know, live, work and play here in Oregon.”

DeFazio, who was comfortably re-elected in November, says he’s tried to strike a balance.

For now, people here in timber country are waiting to see whether President Trump makes good on his campaign promises. If he does, this corner of a blue state may become a bellwether.

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Dogs Are Doggos: An Internet Language Built Around Love For The Puppers

“DoggoLingo” is a language trend that’s been gaining steam on the Internet in the past few years. Words like doggo, pupper and blep most often accompany a picture or video of a dog and have spread on social media.

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Chelsea Beck/NPR

Some dogs are doggos, some are puppers, and others may even be pupperinos. There are corgos and clouds, fluffers and floofs, woofers and boofers. The chunky ones are thicc, and the thin ones are long bois. When they stick out their tongues, they’re doing a mlem, a blep, a blop. They bork. They boof. Once in a while they do each other a frighten. And whether they’re 10/10 or 12/10, they’re all h*ckin’ good boys and girls.

Are you picking up what I’m putting down? If not, you’re probably not fluent in DoggoLingo, a language trend that’s been gaining steam on the Internet in the past few years. The language most often accompanies a picture or a video of a dog and has spread to all major forms of social media. It might even change the way we talk out loud to our beloved canines.

DoggoLingo, sometimes referred to as doggo-speak, “seems to be quite lexical, there are a lot of distinctive words that are used,” says Internet linguist Gretchen McCulloch. “It’s cutesier than others, too. Doggo, woofer, pupper, pupperino, fluffer — those have all got an extra suffix on the end to make them cuter.”

McCulloch also notes DoggoLingo is uniquely heavy on onomatopoeias like bork, blep, mlem and blop.

This post uses the term “fat boi” to describe the small doggo in the picture.


Dogspotting/Screenshot by NPR
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Dogspotting/Screenshot by NPR

It’s no surprise DoggoLingo is made up of cutesy suffixes and onomatopoeias. “You’re taking on characteristics of how people would address their animals in the first place,” McCulloch says.

What’s more, DoggoLingo is spoken by humans online, as opposed to in memes like LOLcats, doge and snek where the animals themselves do the talking. This makes DoggoLingo much more accessible, McCulloch notes, and perhaps more likely to find its way into spoken human speech.

It wouldn’t be surprising if people started to call their Samoyeds fluffers, point out a Labrador’s mlem or call an overweight pug a fat boi, as in this Facebook post. In fact, they’re probably saying these out loud already.

“A new cutesy word for a thing you’re already used to using cutesy words for? That’s such an easy entry to vocabulary,” McCulloch says.

A menagerie of meme-speak

DoggoLingo’s array of words is a hodgepodge of existing Internet language.

For example, the phrase “doing me a frighten,” used to describe startled dogs, comes from an image posted in late 2015 according to KnowYourMeme.com. In it, a tiny Rottweiler puppy shocks its parent with a flurry of borks. The parent replies, “stop it son, you are doing me a frighten.”

The origin of “bork” itself is less clear, but it’s clearly onomatopoeic. It’s perhaps most well-known thanks to Gabe the Dog, a tiny floof of a Miniature American Eskimo/Pomeranian whose borks have been remixed into countless classic tunes. Jurassic Bork, The Bork Files, Doggos of the Borkribbean, Imperial Borks — the list goes on and on.

Gabe the Dog popularized the term “bork,” which is synonymous with bark.

ArfYouTube

Tongue sounds have been floating around the Internet for a few years now, but seem to have finally found a home in DoggoLingo. They even have precise meanings. As Redditor blop_cop points out in a comment, “A blop is when a dog pokes his tongue out due to tiredness/forgetfulness and it often is only a small portion of the tongue. A mlem is basically any time a dog is licking their chops, or sticking their tongue out!”

The word “mlem” is the entirety of the caption in this post from a user to the Dogspotting Facebook group.


Dogspotting/Screenshot by NPR
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Dogspotting/Screenshot by NPR

A perfect example of a miniature Australian shepherd doing a “mlem” was captured on Facebook, as shown here.

Not all of DoggoLingo is canine-bound. “Blep” is commonly used for cats sticking out their tongues, too, as demonstrated on the feline-focused subreddit /r/blep.

The constant use of “heck” in DoggoLingo might come from the snek meme, McCulloch says, where snakes try to act tough but are really just loveable losers.

Sometimes heck is censored as h*ck. Matt Nelson, who runs the WeRateDogs Twitter account (@dog_rates), says tweets from WeRate popularized h*ck and its derivatives. “I’m sure someone else did that before,” he says, “but it was something original to me and I used it to such an extent that people associate it with [@dog_rates] now.”

@dog_rates currently has 1.77 million followers. Nelson rates submissions to the account with such lighthearted humor that, when combined with the power of a bombastically cute pup, often go viral.

Internet circles define DoggoLingo

McCulloch thinks DoggoLingo may have become popularized and perhaps even solidified in this way thanks to accounts like WeRateDogs on Twitter, and also to dog-devoted groups on Facebook with thousands of members.

One such group is called Dogspotting. At more than 500,000 members — and gaining around 10,000 a week — it’s one of the larger dog-devoted groups on Facebook. The rules are simple. …Well, OK, they’re not that simple.

Here’s a pupper before and after being asked “who’s a good girl?” Unsure as h*ck. 12/10 hint hint it’s you pic.twitter.com/ORiK6jlgdH

— WeRateDogs™ (@dog_rates) March 4, 2017

Essentially, members around the world post photos and videos of dogs they happen across in their daily lives. The No Known Dogs rule makes sure people don’t spam posts of their own pets, the No Selfies rule keeps the posts dogs-only (no humans!), and the Don’t Drive and Spot rule keeps spotters safe.

The result: thousands of doggos and puppers flood the Dogspotting group — and members’ newsfeeds — every single day.

Of course, with members constantly posting and writing captions, the group is a breeding ground for DoggoLingo.

“We can’t help but be socially influenced by each other,” McCulloch says. “The fun part of a meme is participating in something that other people recognize.”

So, if one person calls a fat Corgi a loaf (like in the Dogspotting Facebook post shown here) and others find it funny, it’s easy for terms like that to proliferate and eventually become part of a language like DoggoLingo.

“Loaf” is used to describe the Corgi in this post.


Dogspotting/Screenshot by NPR
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Dogspotting/Screenshot by NPR

Dogspotting may even be the birthplace of DoggoLingo’s titular term “doggo.”

Though created in 2008, Dogspotting really took off in the summer of 2014, particularly in Australia.

This is significant because, as McCulloch points out, adding “-o” to words is very Australian. For example, where we’d say def to abbreviate the word definitely, Australians would say defo.

So were Australians posting in Dogspotting saying “doggo,” which English-speakers around the world picked up on and turned into a viral Internet word?

“That makes a shocking amount of sense,” says John Savoia, who founded Dogspotting and runs the page with Reid Paskiewicz and Jeff Wallen.

“I bet you anything [doggo] was used before Dogspotting and we just made it part of the lexicon,” Paskiewicz says.

James Moffatt, a performance artist who grew up in Adelaide and is not a member of Dogspotting, says he remembers doggo being used “as an affectionate diminutive to refer to dogs throughout my childhood.”

All in all, it’s possible that doggo got a boost shortly after more Australians joined Dogspotting. Pages like Ding de la Doggo may have also assisted its slingshot into meme stardom.

A canine oasis

Dogs’ wholesomeness could be why groups like Dogspotting and accounts like WeRateDogs have become so popular. They’re an escape from a news cycle that’s become terrifying and depressing for so many.

Nelson isn’t sure why exactly dogs are so genuinely heartwarming. “Maybe they represent this sort of unconditional love that we strive for,” he says, “or they just embody this innocent perfection that we can’t really find in ourselves or immediately in other animals.”

“Good afternoon class today we’re going to learn what makes a good boy so good” 13/10 pic.twitter.com/f1h2Fsalv9

— WeRateDogs™ (@dog_rates) December 7, 2016

“Dogs in general are wholesome and uplifting,” says Dogspotting moderator Molly Bloomfield. “Irrelevant of your political views, your gender, your socioeconomic status; everyone loves dogs and dogs love everyone.”

To preserve this oasis and prevent conflict among members, Dogspotting doesn’t allow its members to take political stands in their posts.

“We try our hardest to be fair to everyone,” Wallen says. “We allow spots from rallies, protests and such, but we don’t allow people to project their agendas onto the spotted dogs.” For example, a Dogspotter could say, “I spotted this pup at the anti-Trump rally,” but not, “This dog hates Trump.”

This Dogspotter followed the rules perfectly, spotting a “beautiful doggo” named Oreo at a Planned Parenthood rally in Illinois.

Dogspotting keeps its users from getting political. In this post, the black and white dog shown is said to be at a Planned Parenthood rally, but not stating any political allegiance.


Dogspotting/Screenshot by NPR
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Dogspotting/Screenshot by NPR

Rule breakers are banned, but can appeal to the Dogspotting People’s Court for re-entry. “We want everybody to get back in,” Paskiewicz says, “as long as they don’t do it again.”

As WeRateDogs followers are constantly reminded, all dogs are good dogs. And just about every dog posted on Dogspotting is accompanied by a tone of wonder, gushiness, or pure elation.

“In this time of politics hijacking our social media, people need dogs to smile and enjoy the good things in life,” Paskiewicz says. “I feel honored to be a part of this social happening.”

“Dogspotting is relentlessly positive,” says Joey Faulkner, a Dogspotter and Ph.D. student at the University of Edinburgh who’s blogged about the group in the past.

As Bloomfield puts it, “Dogs are here! How can the world be evil when dogs exist?”

Even the way Dogspotting is run is wholesome. Other dog-devoted Facebook groups like Cool Dog Group and Big Hecking Group of Dang Doggos aren’t seen as competition to Dogspotting, Paskiewicz says. “The more dogs, the better.”

This spot, known as Existentialist Paradox Pupcake, is a favorite of Dogspotting admin Reid Paskiewicz and moderator Molly Bloomfield. It features a pupper on the streets of Venice.

DogspottingYouTube

And if Dogspotting ever becomes profitable, Paskiewicz says a fixed percentage of profits will go to a respected dog charity.

Dogspotting is so positive and complex that Paskiewicz has felt the need to specify during interviews that the group is not a cult. The phrase “we are not a cult” has even spread to posts and T-shirts. It’s one of many Dogspotting mottos, along with “the dogs must flow,” a reference from the novel Dune, and “be excellent to each other,” from Bill and Ted’s Excellent Adventure.

The newest slogan? “Come on in, the dogs are fine,” Paskiewicz says.

DoggoLingo in the dictionary

This dog-centric positivity has driven the popularity of DoggoLingo to new heights. Even Merriam-Webster is aware of terms like doggo and pupper. Though they have a long way to go before they’re eligible for dictionary-entry — they need to be used in published, edited work over an extended period of time — they’re definitely candidates.

“I personally like both,” says Emily Brewster, an associate editor at Merriam-Webster, Inc. “I think it’s great when people play with their language, and the new ‘doggo’ is way more fun than the unrelated adverb meaning ‘in hiding.’ “

McCulloch thinks some DoggoLingo terms have staying power, too: “I wouldn’t be surprised if we see ‘doggo’ around in 50 years and people never realize it came from a meme.”

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