You Gonna Finish That? What We Can Learn From Artworks In Progress

Paul Cézanne, who painted Bouquet of Peonies in a Green Jar around 1898, rarely signed his works. He told his mother that finishing things was a goal for imbeciles.

Paul Cézanne, who painted Bouquet of Peonies in a Green Jar around 1898, rarely signed his works. He told his mother that finishing things was a goal for imbeciles. Courtesy of The Met Breuer Museum hide caption

toggle caption Courtesy of The Met Breuer Museum

How does an artist know when a work is finished? Sometimes it’s a deliberate decision. Other times, the decision is made by fate or circumstance. Now, an extensive exhibition at The Met Breuer Museum in Manhattan is exploring great works of unfinished art.

Jan van Eyck's Saint Barbara, painted in 1437, is mostly unfinished, and yet still a masterpiece.

Jan van Eyck’s Saint Barbara, painted in 1437, is mostly unfinished, and yet still a masterpiece. Hugo Maertens/Courtesy of The Met Breuer Museum hide caption

toggle caption Hugo Maertens/Courtesy of The Met Breuer Museum

The Unfinished show has an intriguing subtitle: “Thoughts Left Visible.” The exhibit showcases works made over some 600 years, which offer glimpses into the creative process and sometimes reveal artists’ anger or despair.

Curator Andrea Bayer says that unfinished works can still be masterpieces. She cites a small, exquisitely detailed drawing Jan van Eyck made in 1437, in preparation for a painted panel.

Saint Barbara sits on a hill near a looming Gothic tower. She holds a thick book and long, graceful palm leaves. The young woman is drawn in black, on a pale background. Van Eyck paints in just a few birds against a blue sky. “And then he stopped,” says Bayer, and declares, “It’s a masterpiece.” No one knows why van Eyck didn’t apply paint to the rest of the panel. But he signed and dated it, which usually means an artist thinks it’s finished.

Rembrandt was once asked why so many of his works look half-finished. He replied: “A work of art is complete when in it the artist has realized his intention.” Rembrandt implies that it’s up to the artist to decide, not to critics, who may say a work appears raw, lacking a complete appearance.

Paul Cezanne, who was never satisfied, rarely signed his works. In a letter to his mother, he wrote that finishing things was a goal for imbeciles.

In 1630, a very frustrated Peter Paul Rubens quit working on this large canvas depicting Henri IV at the Battle of Ivry.

In 1630, a very frustrated Peter Paul Rubens quit working on this large canvas depicting Henri IV at the Battle of Ivry. Courtesy of The Met Breuer Museum hide caption

toggle caption Courtesy of The Met Breuer Museum

When You Simply Get Fed Up

There are all sorts of reasons for not completing a work: The artist dies … the commission dries up … the artist gets frustrated … that last one is what happened to Peter Paul Rubens in 1628 while painting a big battle scene for the French Queen Marie de Medici.

“We can see him using a liquid brushstroke to set out the horses, the men, some of them falling, some of them riding,” Bayer observes. It’s clear from the animated canvas that the piece was ambitious. Yet after three years of working on it, Rubens stopped.

He was having too many problems communicating with the Paris court. They gave him wrong information about the size of the work, also Queen Marie was in trouble. “Basically,” says Bayer, “the artist said basta! and put down his brushes.”

Alice Neel started work on James Hunter Black Draftee in 1965, but Mr. Hunter never came back for a second sitting.

Alice Neel started work on James Hunter Black Draftee in 1965, but Mr. Hunter never came back for a second sitting. © The Estate of Alice Neel/Courtesy of The Met Breuer Museum hide caption

toggle caption © The Estate of Alice Neel/Courtesy of The Met Breuer Museum

When You Are Interrupted

Centuries later, war left another picture unfinished. In 1965, the American painter Alice Neel was working on a portrait of James Hunter, an African American draftee who was about to go to Vietnam.

“She did the first sitting with him, capturing this beautiful, somewhat melancholic head, leaning on one hand,” Bayer says. On the rest of the large canvas Neel outlined Hunter’s arms and legs, the chair in which he sat, in quick, precise strokes. “He was supposed to come back for a second sitting, and he never did,” Bayer says.

Neel waited and waited, much as her pensive model in the painting sits waiting, knowing that his life is about to change.”This is a work in which not only has art been interrupted,” the curator observes, “but you get that sense that life has been interrupted.”

Maybe Hunter was sent to war, but the museum has not been able to find any record of his death. Perhaps he changed his mind about posing. Ten years later, for her first show at the Whitney Museum, Neel decided the work was finished. She put a title on the back, and signed it.

“It’s magnificent,” Bayer declares. “And it is a great example of so many of the works in this exhibition, in which you’re happy that the artist did not add another touch.”

Édouard Manet began work on The Funeral around 1867. The unfinished painting remained in his studio until he died.

Édouard Manet began work on The Funeral around 1867. The unfinished painting remained in his studio until he died. Courtesy of The Met Breuer Museum hide caption

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When You Can’t Bear To Finish

“Unfinishedness” is Bayer’s word for the state of some of these pieces. Sometimes, as in the case of the Neel work, it’s a virtue. At other times, an artist doesn’t want to finish a painting, but can’t bear to part with it.

In 1867, Édouard Manet’s friend, poet Charles Baudelaire died. Scholars think Manet’s dark, brushy landscape of a small funeral procession was painted after the poet’s burial. “It clearly had personal significance for him,” Bayer says. “It captured a moment in which he was filled with grief.”

Anton Raphael Mengs left some key details out of his Portrait of Mariana de Silva y Sarmiento, duquesa de Huescar, 1775.

Anton Raphael Mengs left some key details out of his Portrait of Mariana de Silva y Sarmiento, duquesa de Huescar, 1775. Courtesy of The Met Breuer Museum hide caption

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Manet never finished The Funeral. But he kept it in his studio until his death, 15 years later. Bayer posits the piece simply brought up too many emotions for Manet to want to finish.

When The Viewer Finishes For You

There are pieces in the exhibition which artists left unfinished deliberately. After World War II, many of them stopped trying to create perfect, completed canvases. Instead, work became about restlessness, flux. Co-curator Kelly Baum says they made paintings that looked “unstable, on-going, boundless, impermanent.”

Baum points to Robert Rauschenberg’s White Painting from 1951. Four square panels are hung close together to form a big square, each panel completely covered in nothing but white paint. You can see it here. Is this an unfinished work? It’s hard to tell.

But when a viewer walks in front of it, he or she casts shadows on the panels. The visitor becomes a silhouette. “And because the paintings are always changing,” says Baum, “they can never truly be finished.”

It also means that the viewer participates in the making of the art, and finishes it at least for that moment of shadow-casting.

Do It Yourself (Violin) is Andy Warhol's nod to paint-by-numbers kits that were popular in the 1960s. He invites the viewer to complete the work.

Do It Yourself (Violin) is Andy Warhol’s nod to paint-by-numbers kits that were popular in the 1960s. He invites the viewer to complete the work. © 2015 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. / Artists Rights Society/Courtesy of The Met Breuer Museum hide caption

toggle caption © 2015 The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. / Artists Rights Society/Courtesy of The Met Breuer Museum

When Unfinished Is An Invitation

A canvas by Andy Warhol is like a signature for this Unfinished exhibit. Do It Yourself (Violin) salutes the paint-by-numbers kits that were popular in the 1960s. Warhol paints the outline of a violin, black, on a white background. He breaks the violin down into many numbered spaces, and fills in just a few of those spaces with numbered colors from the kit — brown, yellow, a bit of blue. Again, says Baum, it seems to be an invitation to the viewer to finish what Warhol has only begun.

Over the centuries, artists have been asked how they know a work is finished. Warhol may have had the best answer. Bayer says that Warhol’s response was: “when the check clears.”

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U.S.-Mexico Border Sees Resurgence Of Central Americans Seeking Asylum

Immigrants from El Salvador, including one who says she is seven months pregnant, stand next to a U.S. Border Patrol truck after they turned themselves in to border agents on Dec. 7, 2015, near Rio Grande City, Texas.

Immigrants from El Salvador, including one who says she is seven months pregnant, stand next to a U.S. Border Patrol truck after they turned themselves in to border agents on Dec. 7, 2015, near Rio Grande City, Texas. John Moore/Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption John Moore/Getty Images

Immigrants fleeing gang violence in Central America are again surging across the U.S.-Mexico border, approaching the numbers that created an immigration crisis in the summer of 2014. While the flow of immigrants slowed for much of last year, nothing the U.S. government does seems to deter the current wave of travelers.

Immigration officials opened controversial family detention camps in south Texas. They publicized immigration roundups earlier this year, with more to come. A big U.S. public relations campaign is under way in Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala, warning would-be immigrants they are not welcome. And recently, Homeland Security Secretary Jeh Johnson traveled to Central America to say it in person.

“I am here today to send a message that our borders in the United States are not open to irregular migration,” he said.

But that message isn’t getting through.

That’s apparent in the parish hall of Sacred Heart Catholic Church in McAllen, Texas. Every day, it’s full of young mothers and children who’ve been released by the U.S. Border Patrol. They get a shower, clean clothes, a hot meal and supplies. Sister Norma Pimentel is director of Catholic Charities of the Rio Grande Valley, which runs the shelter.

“It’s like 50, 60, 100, 200 backpacks that we need every day; 200, or 50 or 80 deodorants or shoes,” she says. “Can you imagine coming up with 50, 60, 80 pairs of shoes every day? It’s amazing.”

Immigration officials don’t seem worried about a repeat of the humanitarian crisis on the border that made international news two years ago. Caught unawares at the time, the Border Patrol packed dirty, bewildered young immigrants elbow-to-elbow into frigid cells.

Today, the government has new family holding facilities, and unaccompanied kids are sent to well-staffed church camps.

Yet the numbers are daunting. From last October to March, the U.S. Border Patrol averaged 330 apprehensions of Central Americans a day, according to an analysis by the Pew Research Center, an increase of 100 percent over the same time period a year earlier.

While the swelling numbers don’t seem to alarm the Homeland Security Department, its border officers are clearly frustrated. Two weeks ago, the agents’ union president, Brandon Judd, testified at a congressional hearing.

Drawers of bras, underwear and socks, organized by gender and size, line a wall at a center that provides assistance to newly-arrived migrant families with children, at Sacred Heart Catholic Church in McAllen, Texas.

Drawers of bras, underwear and socks, organized by gender and size, line a wall at a center that provides assistance to newly-arrived migrant families with children, at Sacred Heart Catholic Church in McAllen, Texas. Rebecca Blackwell/AP hide caption

toggle caption Rebecca Blackwell/AP

“What happens is if you are arrested in the United States and you ask for any sort of asylum, what we do is we will process you, and we will walk you right out our front door, give you a pat on the back and say, ‘Welcome to the United States.’ And they’re good to go,” he said.

The Border Patrol ends up releasing the vast majority of family members it apprehends because U.S. court rulings restrict its ability to detain them.

Asylum applicants are allowed to hop a bus to join family elsewhere in the U.S., where they await their hearing. Currently, nearly a half million cases are backlogged in U.S. immigration courts, with an average wait time of almost two years — though the government is trying to expedite the recent arrivals. Critics call this policy of catch and release “de facto amnesty.”

Chris Cabrera is a Border Patrol officer and union official in south Texas. He says all the families surrendering to seek asylum are distracting his member agents, when they should be chasing drug and human traffickers.

“Our agents are so caught up with rounding up the ones that are turning themselves in, corralling them and getting them to the station, that we don’t have adequate resources to get the ones that are trying to get away,” Cabrera says.

A top Homeland Security official in Washington, speaking on background, told NPR the agency is continuing the programs it has in place. These include deporting recent arrivals, detaining a small number of women and children, helping Central American countries fight crime, arresting human smugglers and giving money to Mexico to stop the immigrants in transit.

The official stressed that the U.S. message hasn’t changed: Don’t come. If you do and your amnesty claims are denied, we will remove you.

But inside the Catholic immigrant shelter on the border, no one seems to pay much attention to the government’s tough talk.

Central Americans risk the journey because they know most of them will be admitted at the U.S. border and not locked up, as are immigrants from Mexico who cross illegally.

Wendy Villanueva is from Honduras, traveling with her toddler daughter. The 21-year-old says they fled Colón Province when gangsters extorted her small clothing business and threatened to kill her if she didn’t pay up.

Villanueva and her daughter took buses to the Texas-Mexico border and surrendered to U.S. agents on the international bridge at Brownsville. They’re headed to North Carolina to join her mother and sisters, who are also seeking amnesty.

“According to our countrymen who are here, and from what they learned, we expect that the authorities will also give us permission to remain here,” she says, waiting to collect some new clothes and hygiene items at the shelter for the next leg of her journey north.

For their part, immigrant advocates say the administration’s handling of Central Americans is already too harsh and it should make the asylum process easier, not harder. Ben Johnson is director of the American Immigration Lawyers Association.

“The violence that is driving these women and children out of their home countries has not subsided,” Johnson says. “In many places, it has increased. And they need help.”

While the expectation of catch and release on the U.S. border is a powerful magnet for Central American immigrants, the push factor in their home countries remains horrendous. Earlier this year, El Salvador’s murder rate made it the most violent country in the world, edging out the former homicide capital, Honduras.

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Defamation League Chief Faces Challenge Trying To Renew Civil Rights Activism

Benjamin Epstein, director of the Anti-Defamation League, stands to the right of Martin Luther King Jr. in this photo with Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy and Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson taken on June 22, 1963.

Benjamin Epstein, director of the Anti-Defamation League, stands to the right of Martin Luther King Jr. in this photo with Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy and Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson taken on June 22, 1963. Abbie Rowe/John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum hide caption

toggle caption Abbie Rowe/John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum

The Jews who immigrated to America in the early 20th century brought with them their history as a persecuted people. Many were fleeing pogroms and anti-Semitic attacks in Europe, and those experiences bonded them to other groups that also faced discrimination.

The Anti-Defamation League (ADL), founded in 1913, was established by Jewish leaders to stop “the defamation of the Jewish people” but also “to put an end forever to unfair and unjust discrimination against … any sect or body of citizens.” That mission led to an early alliance with African-Americans, one that bore fruit in the civil rights movement.

“As I think about the work between the NAACP and the ADL, it is indeed an intersection in values, a convergence in interests,” said NAACP Vice President Hilary Shelton, speaking at a recent ADL “leadership summit” in Washington. Shelton noted that Jewish civil rights activists Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman were murdered in Mississippi along with their African-American colleague James Chaney in 1964 while promoting African-American voting rights.

“I thank God for that leadership, and ADL was there too,” Shelton noted. A year later, ADL president Benjamin Epstein marched alongside Martin Luther King Jr. in Selma, Ala.

In subsequent years, mostly under the leadership of ADL President Abraham Foxman, the League was focused primarily on fighting anti-Semitism, but the League’s new president, Jonathan Greenblatt, wants the ADL to renew its old civil rights activism and move the work forward.

“There’s questions like mass incarceration, the school-to-prison pipeline, economic opportunity,” Greenblatt told NPR in a recent interview. “We need to integrate what’s happening with the Latino community [and] the LGBT community, because when we fight for the rights of others, it strengthens America. It makes America a better place.”

There is just one complication. For many current civil rights activists, solidarity with Palestinians is taking precedence over the old solidarity with American Jews.

“Many of our experiences of police repression and brutality seem to mirror that of many international peoples, including [people in] Palestine,” says Rev. Mike McBride, a prominent African-American pastor from Berkeley, Calif., who became involved with the Black Lives Matter movement after the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Mo.

“When we were in Ferguson, and we were being terrorized by the law enforcement and military apparatus,” McBride says, “it was Palestinian young people who started to tweet us on how to survive and deal with the terror we were experiencing.”

McBride and other Black Lives Matter activists recently traveled to the Middle East to meet with Palestinians. He says they came away impressed by their “overlapping” experiences.

And it’s not just the Black Lives Matter movement that is drawn to the Palestinian struggle.

Earlier this year, a group of pro-Palestinian gay rights activists disrupted a meeting in Chicago of the National LGBTQ Task force, an umbrella organization that includes several groups that advocate for LGBTQ rights. A delegation from Israel was invited to the meeting, and the protesters took advantage of the occasion to condemn the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories. About 200 marched through the meeting site, shouting, “Hey, hey, ho, ho, occupation has got to go!” and “From the river to the sea, Palestine will be free!”

NAACP President and Chief Executive Officer Kweisi Mfume, right, embraces Anti-Defamation League National Director Abe Foxman in Washington prior to a discussion entitled "Black/Jewish Relations and the Future of the East Civil Rights Movement" on April 22, 1996. Foxman led the ADL from 1987 to 2015.

NAACP President and Chief Executive Officer Kweisi Mfume, right, embraces Anti-Defamation League National Director Abe Foxman in Washington prior to a discussion entitled “Black/Jewish Relations and the Future of the East Civil Rights Movement” on April 22, 1996. Foxman led the ADL from 1987 to 2015. Dennis Cook/AP hide caption

toggle caption Dennis Cook/AP

The task force executive director, Rea Carey, was forced to cancel the meeting, but not out of sympathy with the protesters. A few months later, she was among the speakers at the Anti-Defamation League leadership summit in Washington, promoting the cause of LGBTQ rights. The ADL’s longstanding support for Israel did not dissuade her from participating in the meeting.

“One of the lessons I’ve learned is that being in relationship is critical to working through conflict,” she told NPR. “It’s when we isolate ourselves that we end up getting in trouble.”

Alliance-building has clearly become more challenging. The ADL’s Greenblatt supports LGBTQ rights and Black Lives Matter, but the perceived intersection of those movements with the Palestinian cause is making his advocacy work more difficult.

“Increasingly, we’ve seen folks on campuses say, [with regard to] this intersectionality … ‘If we believe black lives matter, we therefore also must be anti-Israel and pro-Palestinian,’ ” he says. ” ‘Because we are for, you know, reproductive rights, we are against Israel.’ I mean, generally speaking, I find that specious. I think we need to look at each issue on its own and consider it on its own.”

For Greenblatt and others, the story of civil rights collaboration in the 1960s remains inspiring as an example of how leaders can work together across racial and religious lines. Huddling with Hilary Shelton of the NAACP during a break at the recent ADL conference, Greenblatt pulled up a photo on his cell phone. It was a picture taken in the White House Rose Garden in June 1963, shortly before the March on Washington. The ADL’s Epstein is standing alongside Martin Luther King Jr. , Robert F. Kennedy, NAACP executive director Roy Wilkins and Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson.

“That’s intersectionality,” Greenblatt told Shelton.

“And thank God for it,” Shelton said.

Greenblatt, 45, formerly a successful social entrepreneur and special assistant to President Obama, was not yet born when the picture was taken, but he uses it to promote the ADL’s continuing commitment to progressive causes that go beyond its traditional focus on anti-Semitism.

Among those Greenblatt invited to his recent leadership conference was Glenn Martin, who spent six years in prison in New York and now heads JustLeadershipUSA, an organization that fights mass incarceration, with special attention to young African-American men. Like Rea Carey, Martin says the ADL’s commitment to Israel did not keep him from attending the ADL’s leadership summit and appealing to its members for support. In an interview, he said he thinks it’s good for the ADL members to be exposed to experiences they might not normally encounter.

“I’m invested in bringing the voice of people most impacted into a space where [other] people may not be hearing that truth and really challenging them on their privilege and access,” he said, “and whether or not their work has the values that their rhetoric suggests that it does. “

The new landscape of political activism was evident in Ferguson, Mo., in the days and weeks after the Michael Brown shooting. Activists from the Black Lives Matter movement, energized and angry, bitterly attacked the ADL over its connection with Israel. The ADL director in St Louis, Karen Aroesty, came away chastened by the experience and realizing that activists today have different expectations of their allies than their predecessors did.

“New anti-racism activists aren’t impressed by, ‘We marched with you in Selma,'” she says. “It doesn’t go anywhere. It’s a long time ago.”

The solidarity work done today is around specific, concrete goals and problems. Aroesty notes that her ADL chapter in St. Louis assists the U.S. Attorney’s office in staffing its Hate Crimes Task Force. But given the disagreements on issues such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, even greater efforts may be necessary to make the Anti-Defamation League a consistently valued civil rights partner in a time of divided loyalties.

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Golden State To Face Cleveland In A Rematch Of The NBA Finals

Golden State Warriors guard Stephen Curry poses next to the Western Conference finals trophy after the Warriors beat the Oklahoma City Thunder in Game 7 of the conference finals Monday night in Oakland. The Warriors won 96-88.

Golden State Warriors guard Stephen Curry poses next to the Western Conference finals trophy after the Warriors beat the Oklahoma City Thunder in Game 7 of the conference finals Monday night in Oakland. The Warriors won 96-88. Marcio Jose Sanchez/AP hide caption

toggle caption Marcio Jose Sanchez/AP

Stephen Curry knocked down yet another 3-pointer in the waning moments, pulled his jersey up into his mouth and yelled to the rafters in triumph once more.

A special, record-setting season saved for the defending champs, with a memorable comeback added to the long list of accomplishments.

Splash Brothers Curry and Klay Thompson carried the 73-win Warriors right back to the NBA Finals, as Golden State rallied from a 3-1 series deficit to beat the Oklahoma City Thunder 96-88 on Monday night in Game 7 of the Western Conference finals.

Now, Curry and Co. are playing for another NBA title – just as they planned since Day 1 of training camp in September.

Bring on LeBron James again.

“You appreciate how tough it is to get back here,” Curry said. “You’ve got to be appreciative of this accomplishment, and look forward to getting four more wins.”

The MVP scored 36 points with seven 3-pointers to finish with an NBA-record 32 in a seven-game series, and also had eight assists. Thompson added 21 points and six 3s, two days after his record 11 3-pointers led a Game 6 comeback that sent the series home to raucous Oracle Arena for one more.

The Warriors became the 10th team to rally from a 3-1 deficit and win a postseason series. They return to the NBA Finals for a rematch with James and the Cleveland Cavaliers, who lost the 2015 title in six games as Golden State captured its first championship in 40 years.

Game 1 is Thursday night in Oakland.

“We survived by the skin of our teeth,” coach Steve Kerr said. “We were able to pull it out, and we’re moving on.”

His signature mouthpiece dangling out and the game ball cradled in his left hand, Curry pumped his right arm as yellow confetti fell through Oracle Arena once the final buzzer sounded.

With the Thunder trailing 90-86, Serge Ibaka fouled Curry on a 3-point try with 1:18 to go and the shot clock running out. Curry made all three free throws, then that 3-pointer to seal it.

“This is who he is. Having a clutch performance in a Game 7, that’s Steph Curry,” Kerr said.

And Golden State’s beloved “Strength In Numbers” catchphrase coined by Coach of the Year Kerr was needed in every way.

“No one ever had any doubt that we could get this done,” Draymond Green said. “People have seen teams down 3-1 before but they ain’t seen many. They’ve definitely never seen a 73-win team down 3-1.”

Andre Iguodala joined the starting lineup for just the second time all season and the 2015 NBA Finals MVP hung tough against Kevin Durant, who scored 27 points on 10-for-19 shooting. Shaun Livingston’s breakaway, one-handed dunk late in the third provided a big lift off the Warriors bench.

Oklahoma City won Game 1 108-102 at deafening Oracle Arena, so Golden State never envisioned this one coming easily. Russell Westbrook had 19 points, 13 assists and seven rebounds for the Thunder.

“It hurts losing, especially being up 3 games to 1,” Durant said.

It took a quarter and a half for Thompson to warm up after his 41-point performance in a 108-101 win Saturday at Oklahoma City that sent the series back to the East Bay.

He missed his initial seven shots before hitting a 3 6:02 before halftime, energizing the Warriors in their first Game 7 at home in 40 years.

Back-to-back 3-pointers by Thompson and Iguodala pulled the Warriors within 54-51 with 7:57 left in the third. They tied it on Curry’s 3 at 7:21 and he followed with another 3 to give his team the lead.

Curry and Thompson each topped the previous record for 3s in a seven-game series, 28 by Dennis Scott and Ray Allen. Curry hit one over 7-foot Steven Adams in the third, and Thompson wound up with 30 3s.

Iguodala replaced Harrison Barnes in the starting lineup and what a move by Kerr, who did the same thing last year in crunch time. Iguodala made a pretty bounce pass through the paint to Green for Golden State’s first basket, and his smothering defense on Durant kept the Thunder star without a shot until his 3 at the 5:45 mark in the first. Durant had just nine points on five shots in the first half.

But Oklahoma City dictated the tempo with snappy passes and the hard, aggressive rebounding that had been such a part of its success this season. The Thunder couldn’t sustain it.

“They won a world championship last year, and they’ve broken an NBA record, and people are already talking about it before the playoffs started, this may be the greatest team to ever lace them up in the history of the NBA,” Thunder coach Billy Donovan said.

The Warriors, who fell behind 35-22, lost their last Game 7 at home: 94-86 to Phoenix in the Western Conference finals on May 16, 1976.

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Food Lion Co-Founder Dies; Chain Was Rocked By ABC News Report

The man who helped turn $50 investments in a North Carolina grocery store into the Food Lion chain with more than 1,100 stores across the Southeast has died.

Ralph Ketner, 95, died Sunday, according to a news release from the grocery store chain. No cause of death was given by Food Lion officials or the funeral home handling his arrangements.

Ketner successfully gambled that bigger sales by lowering prices to where profit margins were razor thin were the best path to success.

In 1957, he opened the Food Town grocery store in Salisbury, N.C., with two friends, calling people in the phone book and asking for $50 or $100 investments.

About 125 people gave him money, and that one store grew into the Food Lion chain with stores across the Southeast. With stock splits over the years, an investor who bought $28 in stock originally ended up with $1 million, according to Food Lion.

“He had a profound and lasting impact on the entire grocery industry and he has left a tremendous legacy not only at Food Lion, but through his philanthropy and kindness in the Salisbury community as a whole. Forever a welcome and vital part of our family, even at 95 years old, Mr. Ketner still attended several Food Lion events. Our associates adored and respected him and we will miss him dearly,” the company said in its statement.

Ketner remained loyal to Food Lion even after the grocery store was rocked by a 1992 hidden camera report by ABC News that showed employees selling spoiled meat.

Two producers got jobs with the grocery chain without revealing they were reporters. Food Lion sued and was awarded more than $5 million after a jury found the network liable for fraud. An appeals court lowered the verdict to $2, but still found ABC was liable for trespassing because the employees taped other workers without their knowledge.

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Food For Thought: The Subtle Forces That Affect Your Appetite

Kai Schreiber/Flickr

What do large tables, large breakfasts, and large servers have in common? They all affect how much you eat. This week on Hidden Brain, we look at the hidden forces that drive our diets. First we hear from Adam Brumberg at Cornell University’s Food and Brand Lab about how to make healthier choices more easily (hint: good habits and pack your lunch!). Then, Senior (Svelte) Stopwatch Correspondent Daniel Pink returns for another round of Stopwatch Science to tell you about those tables, breakfasts, and servers. If you don’t like spoilers, stop reading and go listen to the episode!

Here are the studies:

  • You may have heard that smaller portions can help you eat fewer calories. That’s true. But what about larger tables? Researchers Brennan Davis, Collin Payne, and My Bui hypothesized that one of the ways smaller food units lead us to eat less is by playing with our perception. They tested this with pizza and found that while study participants tended to eat more small slices, they consumed fewer calories overall because it seemed like they were eating more. The researchers tried to distort people’s perception even further by making the smaller slices seem bigger by putting them on a bigger table. What they found is that even hungry college students at fewer calories of (free) pizza when it was chopped into tiny slices and put on a big table.
  • What about who’s around that big table? That seems to matter, too. Researchers found both men and women order more food when they eat with women but choose smaller portions when they eat in the company of men.
  • They say breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Well, it may also be the most slimming. When researchers assigned two groups of overweight women to eat a limited number of calories each day, they found those who ate more at breakfast and less at dinner shed about twice as many pounds as the other group.
  • We often try to coax children into eating their vegetables by promising it helps them grow big and strong. Well, research suggests that’s the wrong tack. Michal Maimaran and Ayelet Fishbach ran several experiments looking at how the way food is described affects how much of it children eat. They found kids ate fewer carrots and crackers when the foods were described as nutritious rather than tasty.
  • Having a heavier waiter may subtly prompt you to eat more. That’s what Tim Döring and Brian Wansink found when they studied nearly 500 interactions between diners and servers. Diners ordered more items, more alcohol, and were four times as likely to order dessert when waited on by a heavier server.
  • Here’s some good news: cheating on your diet may not be such a bad thing! Researchers found dieters who planned to relapse every once in a while lost just as much weight as those who didn’t. What’s more, those who treated themselves were happier with their diet, which could help them to stick to it longer.

The Hidden Brain Podcast is hosted by Shankar Vedantam and produced by Kara McGuirk-Alison, Maggie Penman and Max Nesterak. Special thanks this week to Daniel Shuhkin. To subscribe to our newsletter, click here. You can also follow us on Twitter @hiddenbrain, @karamcguirk, @maggiepenman and @maxnesterak, and listen for Hidden Brain stories every week on your local public radio station.

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